100 Questions
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 1.     Name the ten Gurus of the Sikhs in the right order
1.    Guru Nanak Dev Ji  (1469 - 1539)
2.    Guru Angad Dev Ji  (1504 - 1552)
3.    Guru Amardas Ji  (1479 - 1574)
4.    Guru Ramdas Ji  (1534 - 1581)
5.    Guru Arjan Dev Ji  (1563 - 1606)
6.    Guru Hargobind Ji  (1595 - 1644)
7.    Guru Har Rai Ji  (1630 - 1661)
8.    Guru Harkrishan Ji  (1656 - 1664)
9.    Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji  (1621 - 1675)
10.    Guru Gobind Singh Ji  (1666 - 1708)

2.    Name the four Sahebzadas
1.    Baba Ajit Singh Ji  (1687 - 1704) (oldest shaheedi in battal)
2.    Baba Jujhar Singh Ji  (1689 - 1704) (shaheedi in battal)
3.    Baba Zorawar Singh Ji  (1696 - 1704)  (bricked alive)
4.    Baba Fateh Singh Ji  (1698 - 1704) (youngest sacrifieced ever made bricked alive)

3.    When & where was the Khalsa Panth created ?
It was created on the day of Vaisakhi (March 30) of the year 1699 at Kesgarh Saheb, Anandpur by Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
4.    What name did Guru Gobind Singh Ji give to the newly created Sikh Community ?
Khalsa Panth
5.    Name the first 'Panj Pyaras' (The five beloved ones)
1.    Bhai Daya Singh Ji
2.    Bhai Dharam Singh Ji
3.    Bhai Himmat Singh Ji
4.    Bhai Mohkkam Singh Ji
5.    Bhai Saheb Singh Ji

6.    Name the five 'K's that every Sikh must always possess
1.    Kes (unshorn hair)
2.    Kangha (comb)
3.    Kirpan (knife / sword)
4.    Kaccha (short breeches)
5.    Kara (wrist band / bangle)

7.    Who is the spiritual father of all Sikhs (Khalsas) ?
Guru Gobind Singh Ji
8.    Who is the spiritual mother of all Sikhs (Khalsas) ?
Mata Saheb Kaur Ji
9.    What is the native place of all Sikhs (Khalsas) ?
Anandpur Saheb
10.    What is the Sikh Salutation ?
Waheguru Ji Ka Khalsa
Waheguru Ji Ki Fateh
11.    What is the Sikh Jaikara ?
Jo Boley So Nihaal
Sat Sri Akaal
12.    What is the literal meaning of the words
'Sikh' ? Disciple  'Singh' ? Lion  'Kaur' ?Princess

13.    Name the five prayers that comprise 'NITNEM' the daily prayer of the Sikhs (according to the SGPC Rehat Maryada)
Morning (Dawn - Amrit Wela)
a)    Japji Saheb
b)    Jaap Saheb
c)    Sawaiye
Evening (Dusk)
d)    Rehras Saheb which comprises Sodar, Choupai Saheb, Six (first 5 and 40th) Pauris of Anand Saheb, Mundawani, and Salok Mahala 2, the concluding hymn of Guru Granth Saheb.
 Night (Before sleeping)
e)    (Kirtan) Sohaila

14.    Which of the 'Baanis' of 'Nitnem' are not included in Guru Granth Saheb, but are taken from the 'Dasham Granth' ?
1.    Jaap Saheb
2.    Sawaye
3.    Choupai Saheb (included in Rehras Saheb)

15.    What are the four main apostate acts ('Kuraihats') prohibited for a Sikh ?
1.    Shaving or cutting of hair
2.    Eating Kuttha meat
3.    Adultery
4.    Use of tobacco or any other intoxicant.

16.    Name the 'Five Takhts' of the Sikhs
1.    Akal Takht, Amritsar
2.    Harmandir Saheb, Patna (also known as Patna Saheb)
3.    Kesgarh Saheb, Anandpur
4.    Hazur Saheb, Nander
5.    Damdama Saheb, Talwandi Sabo (Bhatinda)

17.    Which Guru started the formal teaching of the 'Gurmukhi' script ?
Guru Angad Dev Ji
18.    Who was the most long-lived Guru ?
Guru Amardas Ji.
19.    Who got the tank excavated (dug out) in Amritsar ?
Guru Ramdas Ji
20.    Who built Harmandir Saheb (The Golden Temple) and gave a central place of worship to the Sikhs ?
Guru Arjan Dev Ji
21.    Who first placed the sheets of copper gilt on Harmandir Saheb ?
Maharaja Ranjit Singh
22.    Who first compiled the Guru Granth Saheb (The Adi Granth, then known as Pothi Saheb) ?
Guru Arjan Dev Ji
23.    When was the first compilation of Guru Granth Saheb installed in Harmandir Saheb ?
1604 A.D.
24.    Who was appointed the first Granthi of Guru Granth Saheb ?
Baba Buddha Ji
25.    Where is the original copy of Guru Granth Saheb placed ?
At Kartarpur
26.    How many pages does the standard printed volume of Guru Granth Saheb contain ?
1430 Pages
27.    Guru Granth Saheb contains the compositions of how many Gurus ?
Six Gurus : First Five Gurus & the Ninth Guru.
28.    When did Guru Granth Saheb get 'Guru Gaddi' (Guruship) ?
October 3, 1708 A.D.
29.    Which Guru was seated on a red-hot iron plate and burning hot sand put on his body ?
Guru Arjan Dev Ji
30.    Which Guru is entitled 'Shahidaan De Sirtaj' ?
Guru Arjan Dev Ji because he was the Pioneer and Champion of Martyrdom in Sikh History.
31.    Which Guru is related to 'MIRI-PIRI' ?
Guru Hargobind Ji
32.    Which Guru was beheaded ?
Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji
33.    Which Guru is entitled 'Hind Di Chadar' ?
Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji is entitled 'Hind Di Chadar' because he died to protect the Hindu faith.
34.    What is 'SIMARAN' ?
Contemplation of the Almighty God
35.    What is the ceremony of Sikh marriage called ?
Anand Karaj
36.    How many 'Lawans' are recited during the Sikh marriage ?
37.    How much of his income must every Sikh contribute for religious purposes ?
One-Tenth (called Daswandh)
38.    When was Guru Nanak Dev Ji born & where ?
April 15, 1469 A.D. in Talwandi (now in Pakistan - Nankana Saheb)
39.    Name the parents of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Father : Mehta Kalu Ji
Mother : Mata Tripta Ji
40.    Who were Bebe Nanaki & Bhai Jai Ram ?
Bebe Nanaki was Guru Nanak Dev Ji's older sister & Bhai Jai Ram was her husband.
41.    Name the wife of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Mata Sulakhani Ji
42.    Name the sons of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Baba Sri Chand Ji
Baba Lakhmi Das Ji.
43.    Which Guru established the first Gurdwara (Sangat) ? Where & when ?
Guru Nanak Dev Ji at Kartarpur in 1521 A.D.
44.    What were Guru Nanak Dev Ji's travels called ?
45.    Name the Muslim who accompanied Guru Nanak Dev Ji with a rebeck (a musical instrument invented by himself).
Bhai Mardana Ji.
46.    Where are the descendants of Mardana found ?
In Ramdas, the city of Baba Buddha, and are called Rababies or  the people of Rebeck.
47.    During his travels, Guru Nanak Dev Ji went to Sayyadpur (now called Eminabad) and stayed at a carpenter's house (considered of low caste according to the Hindu caste system). Name the carpenter.
Bhai Laalo
48.    Who was the (high caste) local official there whose feast Guru Nanak Dev Ji rejected ?
Malik Bhaago
49.    Where was the first missionary center (Manji) established by Guru Nanak Dev Ji ?
The first 'Manji' was established at Bhai Laalo's house to spread Sikhism in Northern Punjab
50.    What was the abode of the Jogis (Yogis) of Gorakhnath clan called ?
Gorakhmata (later became known as Nanakmata)
51.    Name the mountains where Guru Nanak Dev Ji met the renowned 'Sidhas'.
Kailash Parbat (also called Sumer Parbat)
52.    Name the composition in Guru Granth Saheb Ji that records the dialogues Guru Nanak Dev Ji had with the 'Sidhas'.
Sidh Ghosht
53.    Name the so called cannibal that Guru Nanak Dev Ji met during his travel through the wilderness of Assam.
Kauda Rakhshash
54.    During his travels, whom did Guru Nanak Dev Ji meet at Sangladeep (Ceylon) ?
Raja Shiv Nabh
55.    Who was the founder of the Mughal dynasty in India ?
56.    Name the reigning Mughal ruler during Guru Nanak Dev Ji's time.
57.    What are the four hymns by Guru Nanak alluding to the invasions by Babar (1483- 1530 A.D.) collectively known as in Sikh literature ?
Babarvani (Guru Nanak described the atrocities of Babar and his men in Punjab)
58.    Where was Guru Nanak taken captive during Babar's invasion ?
Sayyadpur, now called Eminabad, in Gujranwala district of Pakistan
59.    Where did Guru Nanak Dev Ji meet Vali Kandhari ?
Hasan Abdal
60.    Name the Gurdwara, now in Pakistan, which stands at the place where Vali Kandhari's ego was broken.
Panja Saheb
61.    Name the father of Bhai Lehna Ji.
Bhai Pheru
62.    Who was Mata Kheevi Ji ?
She was the wife of Guru Angad Dev Ji.
She is the only woman in Sikh History whose name has been mentioned in Guru Granth Saheb Ji.
63.    Name the children of Guru Angad Dev Ji.
2 sons: Bhai Datu and Bhai Dasu
2 daughters: Bibi Amro Ji and Bibi Anokhi Ji
64.    In what year was Guru Angad Dev Ji appointed as Guru ?
1539 A.D.
65.    Where did Guru Angad Dev Ji stay during the years that Guru Amardas Ji served him ?
Khadur Saheb
66.    Who was Humayun, and why was he visiting Guru Angad Dev Ji ?
Humayun was Babar's son. Having been defeated by Sher Shah, he was fleeing India via Lahore and hearing the repute of Guru Angad Dev Ji, came to meet him at Khadur for his blessings, with a good number of presents
67.    When did Guru Angad Dev Ji become 'Joti Jot' (immersed in the Eternal Light)?
In 1552 A.D.
68.    When was Guru Amardas Ji born ?
In 1479 A.D.
69.    Name the parents of Guru Amardas Ji.
Bhai Tej Bhan and Mata Lakhmi (or Mata Bhakt Devi as per some historians)
70.    Name the wife of Guru Amardas Ji.
Bibi Mansa Devi
71.    Name the children of Guru Amardas Ji.
2 sons: Baba Mohan and Baba Mohri
2 daughters: Bibi Dani and Bibi Bhani
72.    Who was Bibi Amro Ji ?
She was the daughter of Guru Angad Dev Ji and daughter-in-law of the brother of Guru Amardas Ji.
73.    How old was Guru Amardas Ji when he met Guru Angad Dev Ji ?
61 years old
74.    For how many years did Guru Amardas Ji serve Guru Angad Dev Ji ?
12 Years
75.    What was the name of the river that Guru Amardas Ji walked to to get water for Guru Angad Dev Ji's bath ?
River Beas
76.    When was Guru Amardas Ji appointed as Guru ?
1552 A.D.
77.    Name the eldest son of Guru Angad Dev Ji who struck Guru Amardas Ji with his foot when Guru Ji was seated on Gurgaddi (Guru's seat).
Bhai Datu
78.    Which city was founded by Guru Amardas Ji, where he settled down after being appointed as Guru ?
79.    What is a baoli ?
A well with steps proceeding down to the water level.
80.    When was the Baoli (well) with 84 steps completed by Guru Amardas Ji in Goindval ?
In 1559 A.D.
81.    Who established the system of preachers called 'masands' ?
Guru Amardas Ji
82.    In which year did Emperor Akbar visit Guru Amardas Ji ?
1567 A.D.
83.    Why did Guru Amardas Ji refuse Emperor Akbar's offering of village revenues for the Guru-ka-langar ?
This Community Kitchen must be community supported and depend only on the offerings of the devout.
84.    What did one have to do before he was allowed to attend discourse of Guru Amardas Ji ?
They had to partake Guru-ka-langar
85.    What were the three special days declared by Guru Amardas Ji when all the Sikhs were to congregate from far and near at the Guru's place to hear His words ?
Baisakhi (April 13), Maghi (1st day of Magha, mid January) and Diwali (festival of lights in October/November)
86.    Guru Amardas Ji opposed the practice of Purdah. What is Purdah ?
Wearing of veil by women
87.    Guru Amardas Ji opposed the practice of Sati. What is Sati ?
The practice of burning the widow on her husbands funeral pyre is called Sati. When the husband died, the wife either voluntarily burnt herself on the pyre of her husband or was thrown into the fire without her consent. In popular term the woman who did perform this act was called Sati (truthful).
88.    How many missionaries ('masands') did Guru Amardas Ji train and sent out to various places ? Out of these, how many were women ?
Guru Amardas Ji trained and sent out 146 missionaries, out of which 52 were women. (Note: At one time, the country of Afghanistan and Kashmir were under the jurisdiction of women masands.)
89.    In which year did Guru Amardas Ji become 'Joti Jot' (immersed in the Eternal Light) ?
In 1574 A.D.
90.    In which year was Guru Ramdas Ji born ?
In 1534 A.D.
91.    Name the parents of Guru Ramdas Ji.
Hari Das and Anup Devi (some historians list Daya Kaur as the mother)
92.    What was Guru Ramdas Ji's wife's name ?
Bibi Bhani Ji. (Daughter of Guru Amardas Ji.)
93.    What was the original name of Guru Ramdas Ji ?
Bhai Jetha
94.    Name the three sons of Guru Ramdas Ji.
Prithi Chand (eldest)
Arjan Mal (later became Guru Arjan Dev Ji)
95.    When and where did Guru Ramdas Ji become 'Joti Jot' (immersed in the Eternal Light) ?
In 1581 A.D. at Goindval.
96.    In which year was Guru Arjan Dev Ji born ?
In 1563 A.D.
97.    What was Guru Arjan Dev Ji's wife's name ?
Mata Ganga Ji
98.    Name the only son of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
99.    Name the son of Prithi Chand.
100.    In which year was the first construction of Harmandir Saheb (Golden Temple) completed ?
1589 A.D.
101.    Which guru taught obedience to Satta and Balwand when they struck work ?
Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
102.    Who was Bhai Gurdas ?
He was the nephew (son of younger brother) of Guru Amardas Ji. He was one of the most learned Sikhs and his writings are still respected by Sikhs. The copy of Guru Granth Saheb at Kartarpur is written in his hand.
103.    How was Bhai Gurdas Ji a relative of Guru Arjan Dev Ji ?
Bhai Gurdas Ji was the cousin brother of Bibi Bhaani Ji, who was the daughter of Guru Amardass Ji, wife of Guru Ramdas Ji, and mother of Guru Arjan Dev Ji
104.    Which Guru initiated Bhai Gurdas Ji into Sikhism ?
Guru Ramdas Ji
105.    Whom did Guru Arjan Dev Ji dictate the Adi Granth to ?
Bhai Gurdas Ji
106.    In which year did Bhai Gurdas die ?
1629 A.D.
107.    When did Akbar die ?
October 17, 1605 A.D.
108.    Under the rule of which Mughal Emperor was Guru Arjan Dev Ji made to sit on a red-hot iron plate ?
109.    Where & when did Guru Arjan Dev Ji achieve martyrdom ?
In Lahore on May 25, 1606 A.D.
110.    Name the Gurdwara, now in Pakistan, that stands at the place where Guru Arjan Dev Ji was martyred.
Dehra Saheb
111.    In which year was Guru Hargobind Ji born ?
In 1595 A.D.
112.    Name the wifes of Guru Hargobind Ji.
Bibi Damodri, Bibi Mahadevi, and Bibi Nanaki
113.    How many sons did Guru Hargobind Ji have ? Name them.

114.    How high is the tower of Baba Atal (built in memory of Baba Atal in Amritsar) ?
It is 9 storeys high.
115.    Where was Guru Hargobind Ji sent as a state prisoner ?
Fort of Gwalior.
116.    How many princes who were already imprisoned in the Fort of Gwalior got freed along with Guru Hargobind Ji ?
117.    Guru Hargobind Ji donned the sword as a twin symbol of two powers. Name them.
Miri (Temporal Power) & Piri (Spiritual Power).
118.    Name the fortification that Guru Hargobind Ji put up in Amritsar.
119.    What is the literal meaning of Akal Takht ?
Throne of the Almighty.
120.    Who built the Akal Takht (then called Akal Bunga) ?
Guru Hargobind Ji
121.    When did Guru Hargobind Ji build Akal Takht (Akal Bunga) in Amritsar ?
In 1609 A.D.
122.    Why did Guru Hargobind Saheb Ji build the Akaal Takht directly across from Harmandar Saheb ?
To represent the unity of spiritual and secular (military) affairs. Akaal Takhat (miri) was complimentary to Harmandar Saheb (piri).
123.    When did Jehangir die ?
October 28, 1627 A.D.
124.    In which year was the first battle between Emperor Shah Jahan and Guru Hargobind Saheb Ji fought ?
The battle took place in 1634 A.D. The Emperor sent an army of 7000 cavalry under the command of his general Mukhlis Khan to capture the Guru. In the ensuing battle the Gurus forces emerged victorious after the Guru killed Mukhlis Khan in single combat with his sword. This battle marked a turning point as the Sikhs now turned militant under mughal persecution.
125.    How many battles did Guru Hargobind Saheb Ji fight against the attacking Mughal armies of Shah Jahan ?
Six battles (He won all the battles)
126.    Who were the two masands of Kaabul who were bringing two choice steeds (horses) of high pedigree to Guru Hargobind Saheb Ji ?
Bakht Mal and Tara Chand
127.    Name the reigning Mughal rulers during Guru Hargobind Ji's time.
Jehangir and Shah Jahan
128.    Name the person who recovered the Kabul horses from the Mughals.
Bhai Bidhi Chand. (The horses belonged to a Sikh who was bringing them from Kabul as an offering for Guru Hargobind Ji, but they were seized on the way by the Mughals. Bidhi Chand recovered the first horse disguised as a hay-seller, and the second disguised as an astrologer.)
129.    What were the names of two horses that Bidhi Chand rescued from the stables of the governor of Lahore ?
Dilbaag and Gulbaag
130.    Who recited the correct pronunciation ('Shudh Paath') of Japji Saheb to Guru Hargobind Ji ?
Bhai Gopala Ji
131.    How many Gurus did Baba Budha Ji serve ?
132.    How old was Baba Budha Ji when he passed away in 1631 ?
125 years old
133.    In which year did Guru Hargobind Ji become 'Joti Jot' (immersed in the Eternal Light) ?
In 1644 A.D.
134.    In which year and where was Guru Har Rai Ji born ?
In 1630 A.D. at Kiratpur.
135.    Name the father of Guru Har Rai Ji.
Baba Gurditta Ji.
136.    Name the brother of Guru Har Rai Ji.
Dhir Mal.
137.    Name the wife of Guru Har Rai Ji.
Krishan Kaur
138.    How many sons did Guru Harrai have ? Name them.
He had Two sons. They were :
1.    Ram Rai
2.    (Guru) Harkrishan
139.    Who was punished (excommunicated from the community) for misinterpreting Gurbani and displaying miracles before Aurangzeb ?
Ram Rai, son of Guru Harrai Ji.
140.    In which year did Guru Har Rai Ji become 'Joti Jot' (immersed in the Eternal Light) ?
1661 A.D.
141.    In which year was Guru Harkrishan Ji born ?
1656 A.D.
142.    How old was Guru Harkrishan Ji when he received the Guruship ?
5 (five) years old
143.    Which Gurdwara stands at the place of Mirza Raja Jai Singh's bungalow where Guru Harkrishan Ji stayed when he came to Delhi ?
Gurdwara Bangla Saheb.
144.    In which year did Guru Harkrishan Ji become 'Joti Jot' (immersed in the Eternal Light) ?
1664 A.D.
145.    How old was Guru Harkrishan Ji when he became 'Joti Jot' ?
8 (eight) years old
146.    Which Gurdwara stands at the place where Guru Harkrishan Ji's body was cremated after he became 'Joti Jot' ?
Gurdwara Bala Saheb.
147.    What were the last words of Guru Harkrishan Ji announcing the next Guru ?
"Baba Bakale", which meant that his successor is his grand uncle and would be found at village of Bakala
148.    How many members of the Sodhi family gathered at the village of Bakala claiming that they were the Guru and successor as named by Guru Harkrishan Ji ?
About 22 (twenty two)
149.    Who found out the true Guru in Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji and proclaimed him to the world, thus exposing the fake pretenders ?
Bhai Makhan Shah
150.    In which year and where was Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji born ?
In 1621 A.D. at Amritsar.
151.    What was Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji's wife's name ?
Mata Gujri Ji
152.    How many children did Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji have ? Name them.
One son. Gobind Rai later became Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
153.    Who denied Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji entry to the Golden Temple ?
The Sodhi Mahants
154.    At Kamrup (Assam), which two forces made a compromise brought about by Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji ?
The forces of Raja Ram Singh (a Rajput General of Aurangzeb who led an expedition against Assam) and Ahom King (the local King)
155.    Where did Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji get a huge mound built in memory of Guru Nanak's visit to that place ?
156.    Which Mughal Emperor ordered Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji to be beheaded at Chandni Chowk, Delhi ?
157.    Who were the other three martyred along with Guru Tegh Bahadur by order of Aurangzeb ?
1.    Bhai Mati Das
2.    Bhai Sati Das
3.    Bhai Dayala
158.    How were these three martyred ?
1.    Bhai Mati Das: Sawn into two halves
2.    Bhai Sati Das: Burnt in cotton wrapped around his body
3.    Bhai Dayala: Boiled in hot water
159.    Name the leader of the delegation of 500 Kashmiri brahmins that came to Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji for help.
Pandit Kirpa Ram (later became the Sanskrit teacher of Guru Gobind Singh Ji and eventually became a Khalsa and died fighting in the battle of Chamkaur.)
160.    How old was Gobind Rai (Guru Gobind Singh) then ?
9 (nine) years old
161.    Where & when did Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji achieve martyrdom ?
In Delhi on November 11, 1675 A.D.
162.    Which Gurdwara stands at the place where Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji was beheaded ?
Gurdwara Sis Ganj, Chandni Chowk, Delhi
163.    Who cremated Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji's body after he was beheaded ?
Bhai Lakhi Shah.
164.    Which Gurdwara stands at the place where the body of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji was cremated after he was beheaded ?
Gurdwara Rakab Ganj, Delhi
165.    Who took Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji's head to Anandpur ?
Bhai Jaita Ji.
166.    Which Gurdwara stands at the place where Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji's head was cremated ?
Gurdwara Sis Ganj, Anandpur
167.    Who built Gurdwara Rakab Ganj and Gurdwara Sis Ganj in Delhi ?
Sardar Baghel Singh in 1790 A.D.
168.    When was Guru Gobind Singh Ji born & where ?
December 22, 1666 A.D. in Patna.
169.    What is the significance of Patna Saheb (one of the 5 Takhts) ?
It is the birth place of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
170.    Who built Harmandir Saheb, Patna (Patna Saheb) ?
Maharaja Ranjit Singh
171.    In what year did Bhai Nandlaal Goyaa go to Anandpur Saheb to pay homage to Guru Gobind Singh Ji ?
172.    Who were the poems of Bhai Nandlaal Goyaa about ?
Guru Gobind Singh Ji
173.    Which was the first battle fought between Guru Gobind Singh Ji and the hill chiefs ?
The Battle of Bhangani was fought in February 1686 between Guru Gobind Singh Ji and the hill chiefs led by Raja Bhim Chand of Kahlur. The hill chiefs received a crushing defeat at the hands of the Guru.
174.    In which battle did Guru Gobind Singh Ji's Pathans leave him at a very critical point ?
Battle of Bhangani
175.    How many sons did Peer Budhu Shah have? How many of them died in the battle of Bhangani ?
He had four sons, two of which died in the battle of Bhangani
176.    What did Guru Gobind Singh Ji give Peer Budhu Shah in remembrance of services rendered in the battle at Bhangaani ?
A kanga with some of his broken hair, a kirpan (sword) and a turban
177.    What is the significance of Kesgarh Saheb (one of the 5 Takhts) ?
Khalsa Panth was created here on Vaisakhi of 1699 A.D. by Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
178.    What is the meaning of the word "Khalsa" ?
"Khalsa" is a technical term which in the days of Mughal administration meant inalienable lands or revenues directly looked after or administered by the government of the king. Guru Gobind Singh applied this word specifically to those of the Sikhs whom he had baptized as Singhs/Kaurs. To them he gave the name of Khalsa, 'his own'. (Note that it is not correct to translate the word Khalsa as 'pure'. The word for pure is 'khalis'. The word 'Khalsa' has, however, been derived from 'khalis'.)
179.    At the Vaisakhi of 1699, after administering Khande-Ki-Pahul (Baptism) to the Punj Pyare (five beloved ones), what did Guru Gobind do ?
He stood before them with folded hands, and begged them to baptise him in the same way as he had baptised them.
180.    What was the significance of Guru Gobind Singh bowing down before the Punj Pyare ?
He was proclaiming the Punj Pyare to collectively be the Guru. The commission of Punj Pyare was to take his place after him and were competent to conduct the ceremony of baptism after him. What Guru Gobind Singh Ji did was to separate the personal and the scriptural aspects of the Guruship. The one he gave to the Khalsa (Miri) and the other to the Holy Granth (Piri). Both acquired the title of Guru, and were to be addressed as Guru Granth and Guru Panth.
181.    How many people were baptised after the Vaisakhi of 1699 ?
Approximately, 80,000 people were baptised in a few days after the Vaisakhi of 1699.
182.    What happened to those who stood out in opposition to this new mission ?
Guru Gobind Singh Ji ordered that all those who called themselves Sikhs should get themselves confirmed by receiving the new baptism of the sword (Khande-Ki-Pahul). Those who still stood in opposition to his mission - such as Minas, Dhirmalias, and Ramraiyas - were ostracised and their company was forbidden to the true Sikhs.
183.    How did Guru Gobind Singh Ji start celebrating the Holi festival ?
Guru Gobind Singh Ji started celebrating the Holi festival in his own way. He called it 'Hola Mahalla'. On the day following the Hindu festival, he held a military parade of all the Sikhs, who came out in their best and went through a sort of mimic battle.
184.    What is a 'Khanda' ?
Khanda is a double-edged dagger. The Sikh emblem with the two swords of Miri-Piri, a Chakkar, and a Khanda in the middle, derives it's name from this Khanda.
185.    When did the battle of Anandpur take place ?
1701 - 1704 A.D.
186.    At the battle of Anandpur, who cut off the head of Raja Kesari Chand ?
Bhai Ude Singh
187.    What was the name of the Sikh who drove a spear into the elephant's head at the battle of Anandpur ?
Bhai Bachittar Singh
188.    Where did Raja Gummand Chand die ?
Battle of Anandpur Saheb
189.    In the battle of Anandpur Saheb, who gave water to all dying soldiers irrespective of whether they were Sikhs or Muslims ?
Bhai Kanhaiya (later became Kanhaiya Singh)
190.    When and where did Guru Gobind Singh Ji separate from his mother and two younger sons before going to the fort of Chamkaur ?
December 20, 1704, at Sirsa river
191.    Who betrayed Mata Gujri Ji and the two younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh Ji to the Nawab of Sirhind ?
Gangu Brahmin
192.    Where were Mata Gujri Ji and the two younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh Ji kept after being imprisoned ?
Saman Burj (tower), Sirhind
193.    Name the Gurdwara that stands at the place where the younger Sahebzadas were bricked alive.
Fatehgarh Saheb (Fort of Victory)
194.    From which fort did the Panj Pyare (5 chosen ones) order Guru Gobind Singh Ji to leave for his safety ?
Fort of Chamkaur
195.    What was the name of the Jungle that Guru Gobind Singh Ji wandered through bare-foot after leaving the fort of Chamkaur ?
196.    Name the two Pathans who helped Guru Gobind Singh Ji march through the Mughal camp.
Nabi Khaan and Gani Khaan
197.    Name the Persian tutor of Guru Gobind Singh Ji who helped him when he was called to identify 'Uch-da-Peer'.
Qazi Pir Muhammad
198.    When did Guru Gobind Singh Ji receive the news of the martyrdom of the younger Sahebzadas ?
At Jatpura by a messenger sent by Rai Kalha
199.    What was his prophecy there ?
On hearing the news, he pulled a shrub from its roots with his arrow and said: "thus will this tyrannous rule be destroyed, root and branch."
200.    Who were the 'Chaali Mukte' i.e. the forty freed ones referred to in the Sikh 'Ardas' ?
They were those forty Sikhs belonging to the village of Majha, who first denied Guru Gobind Singh Ji to be their Guru and later on got martyred for his sake fighting near the lake of Khidrana, also called Isharsar, on 29 December, 1705 after realising their mistake. Guru Gobind Singh Ji blessed them as Chali Mukte, the Forty Immortals. After them Khidrana became Muktsar - the Pool of Liberation.(NOTE : Some writers also refer the forty Sikhs who got killed in the fort of Chamkaur ('Chamkaur Di Gari') while facing an army of one million as the 'Chaali Mukte')
201.    Name the leader of the 'Chaali' (40) Mukte who fought for Guru Gobind Singh Ji in Muktsar.
Bhai Maha Singh Ji.
202.    Who was Mai Bhago Ji ?
Mai Bhago Ji led the forty Sikhs (Chaali Muktey) back to Guru Gobind Singh Ji. She had also suffered injury in the battle. Guru Gobind Singh Ji took her in his care and there after she stayed on with Guru Gobind Singh Ji as one of his bodyguard, in male attire. After the death of Guru Gobind Singh Ji at Nanded in 1708, she retired further south. She settled down at Jinvara, 11 km from Bidar in Karnataka where, immersed in meditation, she lived to attain a ripe old age. Her hut in Jinvara has now been converted into Gurdwara Tap Asthan Mai Bhago.
203.    Who was once boasting about his bravery to Guru Gobind Singh Ji ?
Bhai Dalla
204.    What is the significance of Damdama Saheb, Talwandi Sabo (one of the 5 Takhts) ?
1.    Guru Gobind Singh Ji reproduced the whole Guru Granth Saheb here from memory.
2.    He made it a great seat of learning and called it 'Guru Ki Kashi'.
205.    What does 'Damdama' mean ?
Resting place.
206.    Whom did Guru Gobind Singh Ji dictate the Guru Granth Saheb to ?
Bhai Mani Singh Ji
207.    Guru Granth Saheb contains the compositions of how many Bhagats ? Name them.
Fifteen Bhagats. They are :
1.    Beni
2.    Bhikhan
3.    Dhanna
4.    Farid
5.    Jaidev
6.    Kabir
7.    Namdev
8.    Parmanand
9.    Pipa
10.    Ramanand
11.    Ravidas
12.    Sadhna
13.    Sain
14.    Surdas
15.    Trilochan
208.    Which Bhagat has contributed the highest number of hymns in Guru Granth Saheb ?
Bhagat Kabir Ji (541 hymns out of a total of 922 by 15 bhagats). The compositions consist of 227 Padas in 17 Raags and 237 Salokas.
209.    In what year was Kabir Das Ji born ?
1398 A.D.
210.    What does the word 'Kabir' mean ?
Kabir is an Arabic word meaning 'Great'.
211.    What caste did Kabir Ji belong to ?
212.    What was the hereditary occupation of Bhagat Kabir ?
Bhagat Kabir was a Weaver.
213.    Who was Kabir's Guru (teacher) ?
Swami Ramanand
214.    Name the two collections of Kabir Ji's works.
Kabir Granthavali and Bijak
215.    When did Kabir pass away ?
1448 A.D. (According to some traditional accounts, including those of the Kabirpanthis, as the followers of Kabir are called, he lived for 120 years, from 1398 to 1518).
216.    When was Sheikh Farid born ?
1173 A.D.
217.    Who is known to be the first recorded poet of the Punjabi language ?
Sheikh Farid, the Sufi mystic and teacher.
218.    What does the word 'Farid' mean ?
Farid is an Arabic word meaning 'Unique'.
219.    How many compositions of Sheikh Farid are incorporated in the Guru Granth Saheb ?
4 (Four) Shabads (Hymns) and 112 Salokas (couplets). Guru Nanak, Guru Amardas, and Guru Arjan have continued the theme of some of Farid's couplets.
220.    When did Sheikh Farid pass away ?
1265 A.D.
221.    How many hymns has Bhagat Beni contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb ?
3 (Three) Hymns in Sri Raag, Raag Ramkali, and Raag Prabhati.
222.    How many hymns has Bhagat Bhikhan (1480 A.D.-1573 A.D.) contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb ?
2 (Two) Hymns.
223.    When was Bhagat Dhanna born ?
1415 A.D.
224.    How many hymns has Bhagat Dhanna contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb ?
3 (Three) Hymns.
225.    How many hymns has Bhagat Jaidev contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb ?
2 (Two) Hymns in Raag Gujri and Raag Maru.
226.    How many hymns has Bhagat Namdev (1270 A.D.-1350 A.D.) contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb ?
61 (Sixty one) Hymns.
227.    What was the hereditary occupation of Bhagat Namdev ?
Bhagat Namdev was a Calico-printer.
228.    How many hymns has Bhagat Parmanand contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb ?
1 (One) Hymn on page 1253 of Guru Granth Saheb.
229.    When was Bhagat Pipa born ?
About 1425 A.D.
230.    How many hymns has Bhagat Pipa contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb ?
1 (One) Hymn.
231.    How many hymns has Bhagat Ramanand (1300 A.D.-1410 A.D.) contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb ?
1 (One) Hymn on page 1195 of Guru Granth Saheb.
232.    What was the hereditary occupation of Bhagat Ravidas ?
Bhagat Ravidas was a cobbler. He followed the family profession of tanning hides and making shoes.
233.    How many hymns has Bhagat Ravidas contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb ?
40 (Forty) Hymns.
234.    What was the hereditary occupation of Bhagat Sadhna ?
Bhagat Sadhna was a butcher.
235.    How many hymns has Bhagat Sadhna contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb ?
1 (One) Hymn in Raag Bilaval on page 858 of Guru Granth Saheb.
236.    How many hymns has Bhagat Sain contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb ?
1 (One) Hymn.
237.    What was the hereditary occupation of Bhagat Sain ?
Bhagat Sain was a barber.
238.    When was Bhagat Surdas born ?
1529 A.D.
239.    How many hymns has Bhagat Surdas contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb ?
1 (One) Hymn in Raag Saarang. In fact, it is not a complete hymn, but a single line: "O mind, abandon the company of those who turn away from God". (Surdas whose verse figures in the Guru Granth Saheb is to be differentiated from the blind poet of the same name who wrote Sur Sagar).
240.    When was Bhagat Trilochan born ?
1267 A.D.
241.    What is the literal meaning of 'Trilochan' ?
The three-eyed, i.e. one who can see the past, present, and future all at once.
242.    How many hymns of Bhagat Trilochan are included in the Guru Granth Saheb ?
4 (Four) Hymns, one each in Sri Raag and Raag Dhanasari, and two in Raag Gujri.
243.    Who were the 'Bhattas' ?
Bhattas were bards who recited poetry lauding the grandeur of a ruler or the gallantry of a warrior. In the Sikh tradition, Bhattas are poets with the personal experience and vision of the spirituality of the Gurus whom they celebrate in their verse.
244.    Guru Granth Saheb contains the compositions of how many 'Bhattas' ? Name them.
Eleven Bhattas. They are :
1.    Bal
2.    Bhal
3.    Bhikha
4.    Gayand
5.    Harbans
6.    Jalap
7.    Kirat
8.    Kulh Sahar
9.    Mathra
10.    Nal
11.    Sal
245.    What is the total number of Savaiye contributed by the Bhattas in Guru Granth Saheb ?
123 (One hundred twenty three).
246.    Which Bhatta is reckoned to be the most learned of all the Bhattas ?
Kulh (also called Kul Sahar or Kul Thakur).
247.    What are 'Chaupadas' ?
Hymns of four padas or verses (stanzas).
248.    What are 'Chhepadas' ?
Hymns of six padas or stanzas.
249.    What are 'Chakas' ?
A sixer. It signifies a bunch of six padas.
250.    What are 'Dupadas' ?
Hymns of two padas or verses (stanzas).
251.    What are 'Panchpadas' ?
Hymns of five padas or verses (stanzas).
252.    What are 'Chhants' ?
Lyrics usually of four stanzas each.
253.    What are 'Ashtpadas' ?
Hymns of eight verses.
254.    Who wrote Sukhmani Saheb ?
Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
255.    Which Raag is Sukhmani Saheb written in ?
Raag Gauri.
256.    What is the literal meaning of 'Sukhmani' ?
Consoler of the mind.
257.    When is the Sukhmani Saheb believed to have been composed ?
Around 1602-1603 A.D.
258.    How many cantos (Ashtpadas) are contained in Sukhmani Saheb ?
24 (Twenty Four), each comprising eight stanzas. A Sloka or couplet precedes each Ashtpadi.
259.    What is a 'Salok' ?
Sloka, in Sanskrit, signifies a verse of laudation. In Hindi and Punjabi, Salok has come to imply a couplet with a moral or devotional content.
260.    How many Saloks are contained in Salok Mahala 9 (Saloks of the composition of Guru Teg Bahadur, forming the concluding portion of the Guru Granth Saheb, preceding Guru Arjan's Mundavani)
57 (Fifty Seven). They were incorporated in Guru Granth Saheb by Guru Gobind Singh. As is commonly believed, they were composed by Guru Teg Bahadur while in the 'Kotwali' (prison) at Chandni Chowk, Delhi, before he achieved martyrdom.
261.    How many Saloks comprise Salok Sahaskriti ?
71 (Seventy One) verses (67 by Guru Arjan and 4 by Guru Nanak).
262.    What does the term 'Sahaskriti' denote ?
The term 'Sahaskriti' denotes the language-form, a mixture of Sanskrit, Pali, and Prakrit, in which these Salokas have been written.
263.    What is a 'Vaar' ?
Vaar is a verse form in Punjabi, popular in folklore as well as in refined poetry. In the old bardic tradition of the Punjab, Vaar meant the poem itself with it's typical theme as also the form in which it was cast. Structurally, a Vaar consists ofa number of stanzas called Pauris. The number of Pauris as well as lines to a Pauri varies from Vaar to Vaar, though the lines to a Pauri must have a common rhyme.
264.    How many Vaars are contained in the Guru Granth Saheb ?
Guru Granth Saheb contains 22 (Twenty Two) Vaars dealing with spiritual and ethical themes.
265.    Who composed the highest number of Vaars in Guru Granth Saheb ?
Guru Ram Das composed the highest number of Vaars, eight out of the twenty two included in the Guru Granth Saheb. Among the rest, three are by Guru Nanak, four by Guru Amardas, six by Guru Arjan, and one Vaar is by the bards, Satta and Balvand, attached to the Gurus.
266.    Which Vaars in Guru Granth Saheb don't have Salokas ?
All the Vaars in Guru Granth Saheb with the exception of Basant Ki Vaar and Ramkali Ki Vaar by Satta and Balvand, have Salokas added to their Pauris by Guru Arjan at the time of the compilation of the Adi Granth.
267.    What are the 'Salok Varaan Te Vadheek' in Guru Granth Saheb ?
The 'Salok Varaan Te Vadheek' is the title given to the miscellany comprising 152 Salokas or couplets appearing in the concluding portion of Guru Granth Saheb. Guru Arjan, when compiling the Adi Granth, introduced Salokas by the Gurus he had collected into the text of 'Vaars'. The couplets left over in the process were assembled under the caption 'Salok Varaan Te Vadheek', i.e. Salokas in excess of the Vaars.
268.    What are the 'Vaaraan Bhai Gurdas' ?
Vaaraan Bhai Gurdas is the title given to the collection of forty Vaars (or ballads) written in Punjabi by Bhai Gurdas. These Vaars, which are accepted as part of approved Sikh canon, reiterate or explain in simple idiom what was contained in the Sikh scripture. In fact, the Vaars were designated by Guru Arjan as the key to the Guru Granth Saheb.
269.    According to the index of Ragas at the end of Guru Granth Saheb Ji, what is the total number of Ragas and Raginis ?
84 (Eighty Four)
270.    How many has the Guru used ?
31 (Thirty One), the first being Sri Raag and the last Jaijavanti.
271.    Name these 31 Ragas
1.    Sriraag
2.    Majh
3.    Gauri
4.    Aasa
5.    Gujri
6.    Devgandhari
7.    Bihagarha
8.    Vadhans
9.    Sorath
10.    Dhanasari
11.    Jaitsari
12.    Todi
13.    Baerari
14.    Tilang
15.    Suhi
16.    Bilawal
17.    Gond
18.    Ramkali
19.    Nat Narayan
20.    Mali Gourha
21.    Maru
22.    Tukhari
23.    Kedara
24.    Bhairou
25.    Basant
26.    Sarang
27.    Malar
28.    Kanrha
29.    Kalyan
30.    Prabhati
31.    Jaijavanti
272.    Who wrote the 'Zaffarnama' ?
While at Dina, Guru Gobind Singh Ji wrote this 'Epistle of Victory' in Persian to Aurangzeb. In this he reminded him of his ill-treatment, and told him that, though so many of his Sikhs, besides his sons, had been killed, he was still unconquered.
273.    When did Aurangzeb die ?
February, 1707 A.D.
274.    Who was the eldest son of Aurangzeb and why didn't he become the next Emperor ?
Muhammad Sultan died before Aurangzeb on December 14, 1676.
275.    Name the third son of Aurangzeb who proclaimed himself the Emperor of India after the death of Aurangzeb.
Muhammad Azam
276.    Name the second son of Aurangzeb who was the heir-apparent and who begged Guru Gobind Singh Ji's assistance against his brother, Muhammad Azam.
Prince Muhammad Muazzam (later became Emperor Muhammad Muazzam Bahadur Shah)
277.    In which battle did Guru Gobind Singh Ji lend a helping hand to Muhammad Muazzam ?
Battle of Jajau (June 8, 1707)
278.    Who stabbed Guru Gobind Singh Ji ?
One of the two pathans sent by Wazir Khan to kill Guru Gobind Singh Ji
279.    When did Guru Gobind Singh Ji become 'Joti Jot' (immersed in the Eternal Light) ?
October 7, 1708 A.D.
280.    What is the significance of Hazur Saheb (one of the 5 Takhts) ?
Guru Gobind Singh Ji became 'Joti Jot' (immersed in the Eternal Light) here in 1708 A.D.
281.    Who built Hazur Saheb ?
Maharaja Ranjit Singh
282.    On the banks of which river is Hazur Saheb situated ?
River Godavari
283.    What was the relationship between Akbar, Jehangir, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb ?
Jehangir was Akbar's son, Shah Jahan's father and Aurangzeb's grandfather.
(Akbar -->Jehangir -->Shah Jahan -->Aurangzeb)
284.    Name the cities founded by the Gurus.
Guru Nanak Dev Ji: Kartarpur
Guru Angad Dev Ji: Khadur Saheb
Guru Amardas Ji: Goindval Saheb
Guru Ramdas Ji: Amritsar
Guru Arjan Dev Ji: Tarn Taran, Kartarpur (Jullunder), Sri Hargobindpur
Guru Hargobind Ji: Kiratpur, Mehrey
Guru Har Rai Ji: Bagat and Chiryaghar of Kiratpur
Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji: Anandpur (originally known as Chak Nanaki)
Guru Gobind Singh Ji: Paonta Saheb, Guru Ka Lahore
285.    Name the six forts of Anandpur.
286.    Name the five cardinal vices.
1.    Kam (Lust, fornication)
2.    Krodh (Anger, wrath)
3.    Lobh (Greed, hoarding)
4.    Moh (Worldly attachment)
5.    Ahankar (Conceit, egoism, pride)
287.    What are the virtuous counterparts of these five vices ?
1.    Self Control of Kam
2.    Forgiveness of Krodh
3.    Contentment of Lobh
4.    Love of God of Moh
5.    Humility of Ahankar
288.    Name Ten historic Gurdwaras in Pakistan.
1.    Bal Leela
2.    Chhevin Patshai
3.    Dehra Saheb
4.    Kyara Saheb
5.    Maal Ji Saheb
6.    Nankana Saheb
7.    Panja Saheb
8.    Pati Saheb
9.    Sacha Soda
10.    Tambu Saheb
289.    Name the five 'sarovars' of Amritsar.
290.    Where has the starting 'Pauri' of 'Ardas' i.e. from 'Sri Bhagauti Ji Sahay ...to... Sab thain hoe sahay' taken from ?
It is the first 'Pauri' of 'Bhagauti Ki Vaar' (or 'Chandi Ki Vaar') taken from the 'Dasham Granth'.
291.    Referring to the daily Sikh 'Ardas' where the various Sikh martyrs are remembered, write the type of martyrdom that the following Sikhs underwent :
1.    Bhai Mati Das: Sawn into two pieces (Aariyaan naal cheere gaye)
2.    Bhai Mani Singh: Body was cut at each joint (Band band kataye)
3.    Bhai Taru Singh: His hair was scrapped off his scalp (Khopariaan utarwaiyaan)
4.    Bhai Shahbaz Singh: He and his father (Subeg Singh) were crushed on the wheel. (Charakhariyaan te chare)
292.    Write the inter-family relationships of the Gurus after Guru Amardas.
1.    Guru Ramdas Ji was the son-in-law of Guru Amardas Ji
2.    Guru Arjan Dev Ji was the son of Guru Ramdas Ji
3.    Guru Hargobind Ji was the son of Guru Arjan Dev Ji
4.    Guru Harrai Ji was the grandson of Guru Hargobind Ji
5.    Guru Harkrishan Ji was the son of Guru Harrai Ji
6.    Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji was the son of Guru Hargobind Ji
7.    Guru Gobind Singh Ji was the son of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji.
293.    When was Banda Singh Bahadur born ?
October 27, 1670 A.D.
294.    What was his name in childhood ?
Lachhman Das
295.    What does "Bairagi" mean ?
One who gives up worldly life; a sect of Vaishanavs.
296.    Name the Bairagi who captivated the heart of Lachhman Das and made him his disciple.
Janaki Prasad
297.    What was Lachhman Das named by the Bairagis ?
Madho Das Bairagi
298.    Name the old Yogi that Madho Das met in Nasik and learnt 'Tantric Science' (secrets of yoga and occultism) from.
Aughar Nath
299.    When and where did Guru Gobind Singh Ji meet Madho Das ?
Autumn of 1708 in Nanded
300.    What did Guru Gobind Singh Ji name Madho Das after administering Amrit (Pahul) to him ?
Banda Singh
301.    What does 'Banda' mean ?
302.    What title was given to Banda Singh by Guru Gobind Singh Ji before he left for Punjab ?
Banda Singh 'Bahadur'
303.    Who were the five 'Punj Pyare' appointed to assist Banda Singh ?
1.    Bhai Binod Singh
2.    Bhai Kahan Singh (son of Bhai Binod Singh)
3.    Bhai Baaj Singh
4.    Bhai Daya Singh
5.    Bhai Ram Singh (Brother of Bhai Baaj Singh)
304.    What were the emblems of temporal authority bestowed upon Banda Singh before his departure to Punjab ?
A Nishan sahib (Flag) and a Nagara (Drum)
305.    Whom did Guru Gobind Singh Ji nominate as the first Jathedar (commander of the forces) of the Khalsa Panth ?
Banda Singh Bahadur
306.    Which was the first town that Banda Singh's army attacked ?
307.    Why did Banda Singh Bahadur's army attack Samana ?
It was the residence of Sayyed Jalal-ud-din, the executioner of Guru Teg Bahadur, and of Shashal Beg and Bashal Beg, the executioners of the younger Sahibzadas at Sirhind.
308.    When was Samana conquered ?
November 26, 1709 A.D.
309.    Name the ruler of Sadhaura who had tortured to death the great Muslim Saint, Sayyed Buddhu Shah, because he had helped Guru Gobind Singh Ji in the battle of Bhangani.
Osman Khan
310.    Who abolished the Zamindaari (absentee landlord) system ?
Banda Singh Bahadur
311.    When did Banda Singh Bahadur attack Sirhind, where the Nawab had ordered the live-burial of the younger Sahebzadas ?
On May 12, 1710 A.D. (The battle was fought at Chhappar Chiri, 20 kms from Sarhind.)
312.    What did Wazir Khan do, and who killed him ?
Wazir Khan ordered the murder of the two younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Fateh Singh killed him in the Battle of Chappar-Chiri.
313.    Name the Sikh woman who had been carried away by Sher Muhammed Khan of Maler Kotla and buried in a grave after she had committed suicide to save her honor.
Bibi Anup Kaur (Banda Singh's forces dug the grave to perform her last religious rites)
314.    Whom did Banda Singh appoint as Governor of Sirhind after conquering Sirhind ?
Baaj Singh
315.    Whom did Banda Singh appoint as Governor of Samana ?
Fateh Singh
316.    What did Banda Singh Bahadur name the Fort of Mukhlispur after repairing it ?
Lohgarh meaning Iron Fort. (For all intents and purposes, it became the capital of the Sikh territories.)
317.    After assuming royal authority at Lohgarh, what did Banda Singh Bahadur do ?
1.    He struck coins in the name of the Guru.
2.    He introduced an Official Seal for his state documents and letters patent.
3.    He introduced his own Sammat or regnal year from the date of his conquest of Sirhind.
4.    He totally abolished the Zamindari (Landlord) System of the Mughals which had reduced the cultivators to the position of slaves.
318.    What did Banda Singh Bahadur's Official Seal read ?
Deg o teg o fateh o nusrat bedirang
Yaft az Nanak Guru Gobind Singh
(The Kettle and the Sword, Victory and ready Patronage have been obtained from Guru Nanak - Guru Gobind Singh)
319.    What do Degh, Tegh, and Fateh mean ?
Degh means Kettle (symbol of charity or of the means to feed the poor)
Tegh means Sword (symbol of power to protect the weak and helpless)
Fateh means Victory
320.    What was the green banner raised by the Mullas of Lahore ?
The Mullas raised a green banner, called the Haidri Flag, and proclaimed a crusade (jehad) against the Sikhs.
321.    What was the new war-cry that Banda Singh Bahadur introduced ?
'Fateh Darshan' meaning Victory to the Presence. (It was later rejected by the Khalsa since it came to be used for and to replace the old Sikh Salutation of 'Waheguru Ji Ka Khalsa Waheguru Ji Ki Fateh'.)
322.    Name the Sikh who sacrificed his life when he disguised himself in the garments of Banda Singh Bahadur and seated himself in his place, so that Banda Singh could escape from the fort of Lohgarh and retreat to the hills of Nahan.
Bhai Gulab Singh (on December 10, 1710)
323.    When did Emperor Bahadur Shah die ?
February 18, 1712
324.    Who ascended the throne for just 10 months after the death of Bahadur Shah ?
Jahander Shah
325.    Who defeated Jahander Shah to take over the throne of Delhi ?
Farrukh Siyar
326.    When were the Sikhs forced to evacuate Sadhaura and Lohgarh and take refuge in the Jammu hills ?
October, 1713 A.D.
327.    What was Banda Singh Bahadur's second wife's name ?
Sahib Kaur. (He had by her a son, named Ranjit Singh - not the same as Maharaja Ranjit Singh)
328.    Who was the Governor of Lahore who made the forces of Banda Singh retreat to Gurdas Nangal in April, 1715 A.D. ?
Abd-us-Samad Khan (father of Zakhriya Khan)
329.    What was the Sikh Enclosure at Gurdas Nangal called ?
Fortress (Garhi) of Gurdaspur
330.    After eight long months in the Fortress of Gurdaspur, who had a difference in opinion with Banda Singh ? What was the difference in opinion ? What happened as a result of this difference in opinion ?
Binod Singh had a difference in opinion with Banda Singh. Apparently, he proposed evacuating the enclosure and following their old tactics of cutting through the enemy's lines for a place of safety. Banda Singh was not in favor of it. Binod Singh, as per decision reached by his son Kahan Singh, left the enclosure.
331.    When was the Fortress of Gurdaspur captured by the Mughals ?
December 7, 1715 A.D.
332.    Why were the bodies of Sikhs ripped opened ?
The bodies of Sikhs were ripped opened in search of gold coins supposed to have been swallowed by them.
333.    Where were Banda Singh and his companions taken from Gurdas Nangal ?
They were taken to lahore by Abdus Samad Khan and then despatched to Delhi under the charge of his son, Zakhriya Khan.
334.    What was the name of the Sikh who broke the chains around his hands and feet when Emperor Farrukh Siyar taunted him and his fellow Sikhs ?
Baaj Singh
335.    How many soldiers did Baaj Singh kill after breaking through the chains around his hands and feet ?
He killed seven soldiers
336.    When was Banda Singh Bahadur executed ?
June 9, 1716
337.    Name the son of Banda Singh Bahadur from his first wife. What was his fate ?
Ajai Singh. The executioner hacked the 4 year old child to pieces joint by joint with a long knife, dragged out his quivering heart and thrust it into the mouth of his father, Banda Singh Bahadur.
338.    How was Banda Singh Bahadur executed ?
His eyes were first removed by the point of a butcher's knife. His left foot and then his two hands were severed from the body. His flesh was then torn with red-hot pincers, and finally he was decapitated and hacked to pieces limb by limb.
339.    What is meant by 'Chardi Kala' ?
Exalted Spirit
340.    Who were the Bandeis ?
A division of Sikhs that apotheosized Banda Singh Bahadur and believed that he had inherited the succession of Guruship from Guru Gobind Singh Ji. They claimed that they should have an equal share in the management of the Gurdwaras and other affairs of the Panth.
341.    What was the group of staunch followers of Guru Gobind Singh Ji called ?
'Tat Khalsa' as distinguished from the followers of other denominations who held that the personal Guruship had not been abolished by Guru Gobind Singh, and that their allegiance was still due to their respective preceptors.
342.    What were 'Gurmatas' ?
In practice, the Sikh congregation (Sangat) would sit together, with the Holy Granth in their midst, and deliberating over questions of common interest would give their decisions in the form of resolutions, called 'Gurmatas'. All Sikhs were expected to receive them as decisions of the Guru and any attempt made to contravene them was looked upon as an act of sacrilege. Such meetings of the whole people, called the 'Sarbat Khalsa', were to be held twice a year, on the occasion of Diwali (October) and Vaisakhi (April).
343.    Whom did Mata Sundri in Delhi send to Amritsar to resolve the dispute between the Bandeis and Tat Khalsa ?
Bhai Mani Singh and Kirpal Singh. Bhai Mani Singh was appointed Granthi (Head Priest) of Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple), Amritsar in 1721.
344.    When was Zakhrya Khan appointed as Governor of Lahore ?
Zakhrya Khan, also known as 'Khan Bahadur', was appointed Governor of Lahore in 1726 A.D. when his father, Abdus Samad Khan was transferred to Multan.
345.    How many men did Tara Singh Vaan have with him to face the Mughal army sent by Zakhrya Khan ?
22 men. All got martyred fighting the Mughal army in 1726 A.D.
346.    In what year was the title of 'Nawab' and a 'Jagir' presented to the Sikhs by the Mughal authorities ?
1733 A.D.
347.    What was the name of the Sikh Government Contractor who was entrusted with the task of negotiation of the Nawabship and Jagir by Zakhrya Khan ?
Subeg Singh. He was allowed to sit among the Khalsa assembly at Akal Takht, Amritsar, only after he had gone through the ceremony of exculpation, called 'tankhah', for having been a co-operator with the government.
348.    Who was given the title of Nawab ?
Kapur Singh of Faizullapur
349.    On what conditions did Kapur Singh accept Nawabship, when a Jagir was offered to the Sikhs by the Lahore Governor in an attempt to buy peace with the Sikhs ?
Under the conditions that (1) he should be permitted to continue to serve in Guru-ka-langar and (2) to look after the horses and (3) that five Sikhs should touch with sacred feet the Royal Command, both in order to reject it with contempt and also to sanctify it for acceptance
350.    What were the two divisions of the Dal Khalsa ?
Buddha Dal (the army of the veterans) and Taruna Dal (the army of the young). The Buddha Dal was entrusted with the task of looking after the holy places, preaching the Gurus word and inducting converts into the Khalsa Panth by holding Baptismal ceremonies. The Taruna Dal was the more active division and its function was to fight in times of emergencies.
351.    Who led the Buddha Dal ?
Nawab Kapoor Singh
352.    Who was the head of the Taruna Dal, stationed at Amritsar ?
Charat Singh Sukarchakia
353.    Who supervised both the Budha Dal and Taruna Dal ?
Nawab Kapur Singh
354.    Name the 15 year old boy who was beheaded in 1734 for using disrespectful language for Fatima, the daughter of Prophet Mohammed.
Haqiqat Rai
355.    When did Diwan Darbara Singh die ?
July, 1734 A.D.
356.    When was the Jagir presented to the Sikhs confiscated ?
1735 A.D.
357.    When did Bhai Mani Singh apply to the Governor of Lahore for permission to hold the Diwali festival in the temple of Amritsar ? What was the condition of the permission ?
1738 A.D. Bhai Mani Singh was to pay Rs.5000 after the fair, which was to last 10 days.
358.    Why couldn't Bhai Mani Singh pay the amount of Rs.5000 ?
Bhai Mani Singh hoped that he would be able to pay the sum out of the offerings to be made by the Khalsa attending the fair. The Governor, however, tricked him by sending a force under Diwan Lakhpat Rai to Amritsar on the day of the fair and scaring the Sikhs away.
359.    How was Bhai Mani Singh martyred ?
His body was cut to pieces limb by limb.
360.    Which famous Sikh martyr was one of the 52 'Darbari kavis' (poets) of Guru Gobind Singh Ji ?
Bhai Mani Singh Ji
361.    How many immediate family members of Bhai Mani Singh got martyred for Sikh Panth ?
21 (Twenty One) : 11 brothers and 10 sons.
362.    As a result of the renewed persecutions, where did the Sikhs retreat to ?
Most of the Sikhs left the plains and sought shelter in the Shivalik hills, Lakhi Jungle and the sandy deserts of Rajputana.
363.    In what year did the Sikhs attack Nadir Shah on his way back to Persia and relieved him of much of his booty ?
1739 A.D.
364.    What was Nadir Shah's prophecy about Sikhs ?
Nadir Shah told Zakhriya Khan that "The time is not far when these people (Sikhs) would raise their heads and become the rulers of this country."
365.    What were the rewards offered by Zakhrya Khan for the capture and destruction of Sikhs ?
Ten Rupees paid to anyone giving information which lead to the arrest of a Sikh.
Fifty Rupees paid to anyone bringing the head of a Sikh.
366.    What was Massa Ranghar known to have done during the persecution of the Sikhs in Zakhriya Khan's period ?
Brought in cartloads of heads of Sikhs
367.    What did Massa Ranghar do when he was appointed the chief of Amritsar by the Mughal governor ?
He held charge of Golden Temple and banned Sikhs from visiting it. He had turned the holy precincts into a stable and the inmost sanctuary into a nautchhouse where he used to smoke and drink and enjoy dance of public women. He also started abusing Hindus and Sikhs of Amritsar.
368.    Who were the two Sikhs who killed Massa Ranghar ?
Bhai Mehtab Singh and Bhai Sukha Singh
369.    How did they kill Massa Ranghar ?
In August 1740, they reached Amritsar. Disguising themselves as Mohammedans and filling two bags with well rounded brick-bats, they entered the precincts of the temple under the pretext of paying their land-revenue. While Sukha singh watched the entrance, Mehtab Singh fell on the tyrant like lightening and cut off his head.
370.    Where did Mehtab Singh and Sukha Singh take the head of Massa Ranghar ?
Budha Jorh in Deserts of Rajasthan.
371.    How was Mehtab Singh martyred ?
Publicly broken on the wheel.
372.    What was the name of the road that Bhai Bota Singh and Bhai Gurja Singh blocked and charged tolls to travellers using it?
Grand Trunk Road near Sarai Nurdin
373.    What were the tolls charged by Bota Singh and Garja Singh ?
One Anna (6.25 Paise) per cart and one Paisa per donkey-load.
374.    What was the fate of Bota Singh and Garja Singh ?
Since no one reported them to the Mughals and paid their tolls without complaining, Bota Singh himself wrote to the Governor of Lahore announcing himself and the tax he was levying on travellers. Zakhriya Khan sent a detachment of 100 horses to arrest him. Bota Singh and Garja Singh refused to surrender and died fighting.
375.    When did Bhai Taru Singh achieve martyrdom ?
June, 1745 A.D.
376.    Why and how was he martyred ?
He cultivated fields and whatever was produced, he offered to his Sikh brethren in exile. This was considered treason and he was reported by Harbhagat of Jandiala and executed. His hair was scrapped of his scalp.
377.    When did Zakhriya Khan die ?
June, 1745 A.D.
378.    Who was the successor of Zakhriya Khan ?
His son, Yahiya Khan.
379.    Why and how were Subeg Singh and Shahbaz Singh martyred ?
Subeg Singh, who had contracts with government, was martyred under suspicion that he was supplying info to Sikhs. His 15 year old son, Shahbaz Singh was martyred because he refused to convert to Islam under the wishes of this Qazi at the Mohammedan school he studied at.
Subeg Singh and Shahbaz Singh were put on a wheel with slashing knives arranged around it and turned on it.
380.    What was Diwan Lakhpat Rai's brother's name ?
Jaspat Rai, Faujdar of Eminabad.
381.    When Jaspat Rai attacked the Sikhs visiting Eminabad, who killed him ?
Nirbhau Singh got onto the elephant of Jaspat Rai and cut off his head.
382.    What does 'Ghalughaara' mean in English ?
383.    In what year did the 'Chhota Ghalughaara' (First Holocaust) occur ?
384.    In the 'Chhota Ghalughaara', what were the names of the Nawab and the Hindu Diwaan who led the sudden Mughal attack on the Sikhs as they crossed the Raavi River ?
Yahiya Khaan and Lakhpat Rai (Lakhpat was Hindu Diwaan)
385.    How many Sikhs were killed in the 'Chhota Ghalughaara' ?
At least 7000 were killed and 3000 brought as prisoners to Lahore, where they were beheaded at the 'Nakhas', after being subjected to indignities and torture.
386.    When did Yahiya Khan lose power ?
Yahiya Khan was ousted by his younger brother, Shah Nawaz Khan, the Governor of Multan, in March 1747. Lakhpat Rai was also thrown in prison.
387.    When was Nadir Shah assasinated ?
June 8, 1747 A.D.
388.    Who ascended the throne of Afganistan after the assasination of Nadir Shah ?
Ahmed Shah Durrani (also known as Ahmed Shah Abdali)
389.    Whom did Shah Nawaz Khan invite to invade India ?
Ahmed Shah Durrani, ruler of Kabul.
390.    When did Ahmed Shah Durrani establish his control over Lahore ?
January 12, 1748 A.D.
391.    Who defeated Ahmed Shah Durrani ?
The Mughals defeated Ahmed Shah Durrani in the battle of Manupur, near Sirhind, in the middle of March, 1748.
392.    After his defeat, when Ahmed Shah Durrani left Sirhind, who attacked the Durranis, looting and plundering considerable wealth and horses from the Durranis ?
Sardar Charat Singh Sukarchakia
393.    Who became the new Governor of Lahore and Multan ?
Mir Mannu, on April 11, 1748 A.D.
394.    When was Jassa Singh Ahluwalia born ?
May 3, 1718 A.D.
395.    What was Jassa Singh's father's name ?
Badar Singh
396.    How old was Jassa Singh Ahluwalia when his father died ?
5 years old
397.    Who was entreated to take care of Jassa Singh Ahluwalia when his father died ?
Mata Sundri Ji
398.    How long did Jassa Singh and his mother serve Mata Sundri in Delhi ?
For a period of about 7 years.
399.    Whom did Jassa Singh Ahluwalia's mother leave him with (as his god-father) ?
Sardar Kapur Singh. Jassa Singh became famous as his adopted son.
400.    Who lead the attack on Salabat Khan to liberate Amritsar from under his control in March 1748 ?
Sardar Jassa Singh Ahluwalia. He chopped off the head of Salabat Khan in the battle.
401.    Name the twelve Sikh Misls (regiments).
1.    Ahluwalia (led by Sardar Jassa Singh Ahluwalia)
2.    Bhangi (led by Sardar Hari Singh Bhangi.) Also called Dhillon Sardars.
3.    Dalewalia (led by Gulab Singh Dalewalia)
4.    Faizalpuria (led by Nawab Kapoor Singh Virk)
5.    Kanaihya (led by Jai Singh Kanaihya)
6.    Karor Singhia (led by Karora Singh Dhaliwal)
7.    Nakai (led by Hari Singh Nakai)
8.    Nishanwala (led by Dasaundha Singh)
9.    Ramgarhia (led by Nand Singh Sanghania)
10.    Sukerchakia (led by Nodh Singh.) Ranjit Singh's Misl.
11.    Shaheed (drew their name from Baba Deep Singh Ji Shaheed)
12.    Phulkian (led by Ala Singh)
402.    What were these Misls collectively called ?
Dal Khalsa
403.    Who was the founder of the Dal Khalsa ?
Nawab Kapur Singh
404.    When was Jassa Singh chosen the Supreme Commander of the Dal Khalsa ?
March 29, 1748 A.D.
405.    What is a 'Rauni' ?
Rauni is a thick boundary wall or enclosure. It is not a fortress or a fort, but is a minor shelter.
406.    What was the name of the Rauni built in Amritsar in April, 1748 ?
Ram Rauni, after the name of the fourth Guru, Guru Ramdas. The enclosure was built on a piece of land near Ramsar.
407.    Whom did Nawab Kapur Singh appoint as the new Jathedar of the Khalsa Panth ?
Jassa Singh Ahluwalia in 1753.
408.    Who laid the foundation stone of Harmandar Saheb when it was rebuilt by the Taruna Dal ?
Jassa Singh Ahluwalia
409.    Name the Sikh warrior who was awarded the title Sultan-ul-Quam (King of the Khalsa Panth).
Jassa Singh Ahluwalia when he defeated the ruler of Lahore in 1761
410.    When did Jassa Singh Ahluwalia occupy Kapurthala ?
In 1778, Jassa Singh occupied Kapurthala and assumed the title of king. He also issued coins.
411.    What was the inscription on the coins minted by Jassa Singh Ahluwalia in the name of the Gurus ?
Deg o teg o fateh o nusrat bedirang
Yaft az Nanak Guru Gobind Singh
412.    When Adeena Beg failed in his negotiations with Jassa Singh Ahluwalia, who refused to accept a share in political power or to have an independent state, whom did he manage to net in to serve under him ?
Jassa Singh Ramgharia, his 3 brothers and some associates.
413.    When was Ram Rauni seized and for how long ?
The Ram Rauni was seized in October, 1748 by Adeena Beg and Jassa Singh Ramgharia and the seize went on for 3 months from October-December, 1748.
414.    What did Jassa Singh Ramgharia decide to do ?
He decided to desert the royal army and join his brethren Singhs.
415.    When did Ahmed Shah Durrani (Abdali) invade India for the second time ?
December, 1748 A.D., nine months after his first invasion in March, 1748.
416.    Who made an offering of Rs.11000 for the service of the holy tank at Harmandir Saheb ?
Diwan Koura Mal made this offering. The holy tank which had been filled up by the orders of Lakhpat Rai in Yahiya Khan's time, was dug up and cleaned.
417.    When did Ahmed Shah Durrani (Abdali) invade India for the third time ?
January, 1752 A.D.
418.    When was Diwan Koura Mal killed ?
March 1752 A.D. He was killed by a shot fired by an agent of Adeena Beg during the defeat of Mir Mannu at the hands of the Durranis.
419.    When was the persecution of Sikhs by Mir Mannu renewed ?
March 1752 A.D.
420.    How did Mir Mannu treat Sikh women ?
He tortured them in order to force them to abandon their religion. He ordered the children and babies of imprisoned Sikh women to be speared alive, or cut up into pieces and made into necklaces to be put around the mother's neck.
421.    How many years did this slaughter of Sikh children go on for ?
Four years
422.    During the persecution of Sikhs by Mir Mannu what price was paid for the severed head of a Sikh ?
Rs. 80 (equivalent to one year's pay)
423.    During the persecution of Sikhs by Mir Mannu what happened if a person lost a horse in fighting a Sikh ?
The government replaced it with another horse.
424.    When did Nawab Kapur Singh die ?
October 7, 1753 A.D.
425.    When did Mir Mannu finally die ?
November 2, 1753 A.D.
426.    When was Sardar Jassa Singh Ahluwalia formally appointed as the political and religious leader of the Khalsa Panth in place of Nawab Kapur Singh ?
April 10, 1756 A.D.
427.    When did Ahmed Shah Durrani (Abdali) invade India for the fourth time ?
January 28, 1757 A.D.
428.    When did Adeena Beg die ?
September 15, 1758 A.D.
429.    When did Ahmed Shah Durrani (Abdali) invade India for the fifth time ?
October 25, 1759 A.D.
430.    When was the historic battle of Panipat fought ?
January 14, 1761 A.D.
431.    Why was Ala Singh condemned and fined by the Dal Khalsa ?
For his act of submission to the foreigner - in March 1761, Ala Singh was confirmed as a ruler independent of Sirhind in return for a tribute of five lakhs annually.
432.    How many Hindu women were released and restored to their families when the Sikhs attacked the Durrani forces returning from Delhi ?
About 2200 Hindu women.
433.    When did Ahmed Shah Durrani (Abdali) invade India for the sixth time ?
February 3, 1762 A.D.
434.    On what date did the Wada Ghalughaara (Greater Holocaust) occur ?
February 5, 1762
435.    In the Wada Ghalughaaraa, out of the 30,000 Sikhs, how many were massacred by the Mughal forces ?
10,000 (mainly women and children)
436.    When did Ahmed Shah Durrani blow up Harmandir Sahib with gunpowder ?
April 10, 1762 A.D. The tank after being desecrated with the blood of cows was filled with refuse and debris. The 'Bunghas' (rest-houses) meant for pilgrims were destroyed.
437.    How did he get wounded ?
As the buildings were being blown up, a flying brick-bat struck him on his nose and inflicted a wound from which he never recovered.
438.    Who was Baba Deep Singh ?
Baba Deep Singh was incharge of the Gurdwara at Talwandi Sabo, called Damdama Saheb. He had received baptism from the hands of Guru Gobind Singh Ji himself. He was one of the most scholarly Sikhs of his time and had helped the tenth Guru, along with Bhai Mani Singh, in preparing the final version of the Adi Granth.
On hearing about the desecration of Harmandir Saheb (Golden Temple) by Durrani, he started at once to avenge the insult. In the battle of Goharval, he received a mortal wound, but supporting his wounded head, he went on fighting untill he fell dead in the precincts of Harmandir Saheb.
439.    Why did Hari Singh Bhangi lead an expedition against Kasur ?
To free the wife of a brahmin of Kasur on april 10, 1763.
440.    Who got the Gurdwara 'Fatehgarh Saheb' built at the place where the infant sons Guru Gobind Singh Ji were bricked alive ?
Jassa Singh Ahluwalia in 1764.
441.    When did Ahmed Shah Durrani (Abdali) invade India for the seventh time ?
October, 1764 A.D.
442.    When did Ahmed Shah Durrani (Abdali) invade India for the eighth and last time ?
November, 1765 A.D.
443.    What caused Ahmad Shah's death in June 1773 ?
The brick-bat that hit his nose during his desecration of Harmandar Saheb made a wound that turned cancerous and eventually caused his death
444.    When did Jassa Singh Ahluwalia pass away ?
October 20, 1783 A.D.
445.    What city did Sardar Baghel Singh occupy in the year 1790 ?
446.    Who did Sardar Baghel Singh's forces defeat in order to capture Delhi ?
Shah Alam II
447.    How large a force did Sardar Baghel Singh leave at Delhi ?
30,000 men
448.    What is the place in Delhi known as, where Sardar Baghel Singh stationed 30,000 of his troops ?
Tees Hazari (The Place of 30,000)
449.    When and where was Maharaja Ranjit Singh born ?
Nov. 13, 1780 at Gujranwala
450.    What was Maharaja Ranjit Singh's father's name ?
Mahan Singh (son of Sardar Charat Singh)
451.    What was Maharaja Ranjit Singh's mother's name ?
Raj Kaur
452.    What was Maharaja Ranjit Singh's mother-in-law's name who played an important part in his life ?
Sardarni Sada Kaur, wife of Jai Singh, the Kanhaiya leader. (She is believed to be the ladder by which Ranjit Singh reached the climax of his power)
453.    Who was the first wife of Maharaja Ranjit Singh ?
Mehtab Kaur, daughter of Sardarni Sada Kaur.
454.    What was the name of the wife of Maharaja Ranjit Singh who gave birth to Kharak Singh in 1802 ?
Rani Raj Kaur, daughter of Nakai Sardar Khazan Singh
455.    Name the sons of Ranjit Singh.
Sher Singh and Tara Singh (born of Mehtab Kaur), Dilip Singh (born of Jind Kaur), and Kharak Singh (born of Rani Raj Kaur).
456.    Who was entitled 'Sher-e-Punjab' (Lion of Punjab) ?
Maharaja Ranjit Singh
457.    For how many years did Maharaja Ranjit Singh rule for ?
40 Years (1799-1839)
458.    What diamond did Maharaja Ranjit Singh wear on his arm ?
Kohinoor diamond
459.    Who presented the Kohinoor diamond to Maharaja Ranjit Singh ?
The wife of Shah Shuja, the former king of Kabul, whom Maharaja Ranjit Singh released from his opponents in Kashmir.
460.    Where was the first great victory of Maharaja Ranjit Singh against the Afghans ?
461.    At Multaan, what famous gun was used by the troops of Maharaja Ranjit Singh ?
Jamjama Top (gun)
462.    When did Maharaja Ranjit Singh occupy throne in Lahore ?
July 7, 1799 A.D.
463.    When did Maharaja Ranjit Singh annex Amritsar ?
In 1802 A.D.
464.    When did Maharaja Ranjit Singh annex Multan, Kashmir, Peshawar, and Bannu ?
He annexed Multan in 1818 A.D., Kashmir in 1819 A.D., and Peshawar and Bannu in 1823 A.D.
465.    In which year did the enthroning of Ranjit Singh as the Maharaja of Punjab take place ?
Baisakhi day of 1801 A.D.
466.    What was the name of the commemorative coin issued on this auspicious occasion ?
Nanakshahi Rupee
467.    How long did the Sarkar Khalsa rule Punjab for ?
50 years (1799-1849 A.D.)
468.    Why was Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa given the last name "Nalwa" by Maharaja Ranjit Singh ?
Because he slayed a lion (tiger) with a sword while on a hunting expedition with Maharaja Ranjit Singh, thus saving both his life and the Maharaja's
469.    What does "Haria Raghle" mean ?
Hari Singh has come
470.    Which famous Gurdwara did Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa build ?
Gurdwara Panja Saheb
471.    What fortress of great military importance did Hari Singh Nalwa capture ?
Fortress at Jamrud
472.    What is the literal meaning of the word 'Nihang' ?
'Nihang' is a persian word which means 'crocodile'.
473.    Who caused the Ghazis to say, "Toba Toba, Khuda Khud, Khalsa Shud!" ?
Akali Phula Singh
474.    In which year was Akali Phula Singh made Jathedar of Akal Takht ?
475.    As Jathedar of Akal Takht, what did Akali Phula Singh do to Maharaja Ranjit Singh ?
When Ranjit Singh married a Muslim woman, named Moran of Lahore, Akali Phula Singh, as the Jathedar of Akal Takth declared that Maharaja Ranjit Singh is not a Sikh anymore and is a 'Tankhaiya' which means out of Sikhism. He ordered the defendant to be at Golden temple before the community. Ranjit Singh came and admitted that he had made a mistake. Akali Phula Singh ordered 50 lashes for Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Ranjit Singh bowed down to receive his punishment. Panj Pyaras were gratified at the submission of the Maharaja and took a lenient view and accepted a fine of Rs. 1,25,000 from the Maharaja.
476.    Across the river Kabul, there is a tomb (Samaadhi) that still stands as a witness to a warrior's undying chivalry. Who was this warrior ?
Akali Phula Singh
477.    When did Maharaja Ranjit Singh die ?
June 27, 1839
478.    When did Maharaja Kharak Singh, successor of Maharaja Ranjit Singh die ?
November 6, 1840 A.D. (His son, Naunihal Singh died on same day too).
479.    Who killed Kharak Singh ?
The Dogras
480.    Who was the successor of Maharaja Kharak Singh ?
Maharaja Sher Singh became successor on January 18, 1841 A.D.
481.    When was Maharaja Sher Singh murdered ?
September, 1843 A.D.
482.    Who was the successor ?
Maharaja Duleep Singh, son of Maharani Jind Kaur.
483.    When did Maharaja Duleep Singh accept the Christian faith ?
In 1853, Maharaja Duleep Singh, the last Sikh ruler of the Punjab, accepted the Christian faith.
484.    Who went to England to meet Maharaja Duleep Singh and was responsible for his public renunciation of Christianity and return to the Sikh faith ?
Sardar Thakur Singh Sandhawalia. He was the chief agent of Maharaja Duleep Singh in India during his struggle against the British Government in the eighteen eighties. It was he who had provided the Maharaja with important documentary evidence in support of the Maharaja's claims to his private ancestral estates in the Punjab and had used his influence to win the sympathies of the Sikhs in his favor.
485.    Whom did Maharaja Duleep Singh nominate as his would-be prime minister ?
Sardar Thakur Singh Sandhawalia.
486.    When and where did Maharaja Duleep Singh die ?
Maharaja Duleep Singh died in Paris on October 22, 1893.
487.    When was the First Anglo-Sikh war fought ?
1845-46 A.D.
488.    When was the Second Anglo-Sikh war fought ?
1848-49 A.D.
489.    What were the main objectives of the Singh Sabha ?
The Singh Sabha mainly undertook to:
1.    restore Sikhism to it's pristine purity;
2.    edit and publish historical and religious books;
3.    propagate current knowledge, using Punjabi as the medium, and to start magazines and newspapers in Punjabi;
4.    reform and bring back into the Sikh fold the apostates; and
5.    interest the highlyplaced Englishmen, in and ensure their association with, the educational program of Sikhs.
490.    When was the second Singh Sabha established ?
The second Singh Sabha was established in Lahore in 1879, with Dewan Boota Singh and Professor Gurmukh Singh as President and Secretary.
491.    What was the Singh Sabha at Amritsar renamed to ?
The Amritsar Singh Sabha became the central organization and other Singh Sabha's became associated with it. It's name was changed to Khalsa Diwan. Baba Khem Singh Bedi became the President and Professor Gurmukh Singh it's chief Secretary.
492.    What does 'Ghadr' mean ?
Mutiny. a type of rebellion against an authority figure
493.    How did the Ghadr Movement get it's name ?
The word 'Ghadr' was the name given to the newspaper edited and published for the Hindustani Association of the Pacific Coast which was founded at Portland, USA, in 1912. The movement this Association gave rise to for revolutionary activities in India also came to be known as the 'Ghadr Movement'.
494.    What was the 'Komagata Maru' ?
The Komagata Maru was a Japanese steamliner chartered by an affluent businessman, Gurdit Singh, to bring Indian immigrants to Canada in 1914. The ship's route departed from Hong Kong, stopped in Japan and then headed to Canada. It's passengers included 376 Indians, all Punjabis, among whom 340 were Sikhs. The ship was eventually turned back at Vancouver where landing was refused, and terminated eventually at Calcutta.
495.    When did Komagata Maru reach Vancouver ?
The Komagata Maru reached Vancouver on May 23, 1914. After two months of a heated legal battle, the ship was forced to leave Vancouver on July 23, 1914. Only 24 passengers were given permission to legally stay in Canada.
496.    Where was the Komagata Maru redirected to when it approached Calcutta ?
When the Komagata Maru approached Calcutta on September 26, 1914, the ship was redirected by European gunboats to a place called Budge Budge, about 17 miles from Calcutta.
497.    How many Indians were killed by the firing of the British troops in the Budge Budge riot ?
Twenty-nine fell victim to the bullets of the British officials and 20 died.
498.    When did the massacre at Jallianwaala Baagh occur ?
April 13, 1919 A.D.
499.    Who ordered his troops to fire on the unarmed men, women and children assembled at Jallianwaala Baagh ?
General Dyer
500.    How many people were massacred at Jallianwaala Baagh ?
309 Sikhs killed at Jallianwaala Baagh
501.    Why did Udham Singh assassinate Sir Michael O'Dwyer ?
Sir Michael O'Dwyer used to be the Lt. Governor of Punjab who had approved General Dyer's actions at Jallianwaala Baagh
502.    The massacre at Jallianwaala occurred as a result of a violation of a set of laws passed by the British Government in India. What was the set of laws called and why were they passed ?
The Rowlatt Act - intended to combat revolutionary struggle for freedom
503.    What was the original Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee (S.G.P.C.) and when did it originate ?
The Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee was a statutory body comprising elected representatives of the Sikhs concerned primarily with the management of sacred Sikh Shrines under it's control within the terretorial limits of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, and the Union Territory of Chandigarh. It originated with the Gurdwara Reform or Akali Movement of the early 1920's.
504.    When was the inaugural meeting of S.G.P.C. held ?
At the Akal Takht on December 20, 1920.
505.    Who was elected as the first president of S.G.P.C. ?
Sardar Sundar Singh Majithia
506.    Who was elected the new president of the S.G.P.C. in 1921 ?
Baba Kharak Singh
507.    When the Golden Temple, the Akal Takht and the adjoining Gurdwaras in Amritsar had passed into the control of the Akalis in October 1920, who was the government-appointed Manager of the Golden Temple ?
Sardar Sunder Singh Ramgarhia
508.    When was Gurdwara Tarn Taran freed from the control of the priests ?
January 26, 1921.
509.    Who were the first martyrs of the Gurdwara Reform Movement ?
Bhai Hazara Singh and Bhai Hukum Singh, who achieved martyrdom at Gurdwara Tarn Taran.
510.    What was the name of the Mahant who controlled Gurdwara Nanakana Sahib ?
Mahant Narain Dass.
511.    When was Gurdwara Nankana Sahib freed from the control of Mahant Narain Dass ?
February 21, 1921

512.    Guru nanak:
 father Kalu
 Mother tripta
 sister babe nanaki

had 2 children sri chand and laxshami chand and the kids didn't follow guru's main lesson acceptance of guru Hukam
patsha traveled with bhai mardana went to many many places to here are few Mecca medina Baghdad, up in the mountains
Only Bhai  lehna:
Passed and guru blessed the gurtha gaddie renamed him as guru angad sahib means became part of guru nanak.

Confronted called the king babbar, jabbar ( crude and cruel) where patsha made flower manual machines spin by them selves.

1st went Bhai lalo and then to Malik bago where show importance of honest living by roti of Bhai lalo made milk come out and what dishonest and corruption and lying and cheating living life style does by one roti of Malik bhago making blood come out

guru nanak patsha went to teach bhumian (chor) later became saint 3 things

don't lie
no stealing from poor
no stealing from house you eat
guru nanak patsha went to teach sajjan tugh about not cheating and killing the visitors
guru nanak patsha went to teach kouda rakhshish not kill people to eat
guru nanak patsha went to Vali kandhari not to have hankhar and let the villagers share the water you are holding.
guru nanak patsha went to sidhahs also to not to anhkar and live in families and made soap nut sweet

once guru Ji father gave 20 rupees to patsha to start a business and baba ji. guru ji thought the true business feed and help the needy and He used the money feed the Hungary spiritual people. pita Kalu Ji slapped guru Ji when he found out what guru Ji did with the money

baba Ji on first job at modi Khana at sultanpur under control navab dolat khan. baba Ji started giving merchandise without collecting money and started saying teran teran means everything belongs to god. people complained to dolat khan of this. when the money was counted at the end of day there was enough money in the til.
guru nanak visited duni chand was very wealthy person, guru Ji gave him a needle asked him to give it back in the next world, duni chand said nothing from this world to the next, guru Ji said what is all this money you have collected for, use to hep the poor and needy, he listens and followed guru Ji hukam and became guru's sikh

513.    baba budha
at age 12went to guru nanak said he was afraid death
he did seva of transfer of gurtha gaddi for 6 patshian
he was head garanthi of sri harminder sahib Ji by 5th patsha
514.    guru angadh sahib Ji
married to Mata Khivi Ji
showed by accepting guru order we can accomplish anything in world. main lesson guru show by doing seva we can do anything.
lesson seva

515.    guru amardas sahib Ji
followed the order of guru of seva of water for guru patsha and guru blessed with 3rd seat of guru nanak
when king Akbar came to meet guru Ji, patsha required him to eat langar in pangat with everyone
516.    guru ramdas sahib Ji
prior known as Bhai jatha Ji means first born
was married to guru amardas Ji's daughter Bibi bhani
*guru Ji wrote anand karaj lawan, lavan is patt that us what marriage is all about and what is required to be married in the presence of Adh Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji
*did seva of making therae *guru ji made him tear down and re-make the therae several times to test his will and order of patsha.
*3rd patshah granted him next of guru nanak sahib Ji
517.    guru arjandev sahib Ji
father guru ramdas Ji
mother Bibi bhani Ji
Guru ki mehel mata Ganga Ji
brother prithi chand (jealous rebellious)
brother mahan dev
known as shahedan de sartaj
shaheedi by burned by sitting on hot stove, torchered by puting hot sand on his head
1604 compiled adh sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji written by Bhai Gurdas Ji
completed sri harmandir sahib and asked a muslim fakir sai mian mir who was devoted to sikhi and guru patsha to lay down first brick in foundation.
showed how and what sacrifice means to god and set the example for us and future shaheeds
518.    Had one son who guru granted gurtha gaddie to
guru hargobind sahib Ji
father guru arjan dev Ji
mother mata Ganga ji
Children: Baba Gurdita, Baba Suraj Mal, Baba Ani Rai, Baba Atal Rai, Guru Tegh Bahadur, and Bibi Biro
guru Ji became guru Ji only at age 11 when his father shaheedi
fought and all 4 wars showed and told us to defend ourselves and others
blessed us with 2 sword of Miri pori to fight unjustice
Miri wisdom and piri strength
guru was imprisoned by kingh jahangir at Gwalior fort. when released guru Ji demanded the released of other 52 innocent kings.
when guru Ji was released To mark this occasion, the Sikhs celebrate Bandi Chhor Divas.

519.    guru fought 4 defensive wars with Early Mughals and never invaded first because guru has no enemy and set the stage and gave the courage to Sikhs to defend ourselves.
520.    Ist Battle:
The first war took place at Pipli Sahib in Amritsar in May, 1628. Shah Jahan’s falcon was the cause of war. Shah Jahan ordered Gulam Rasool Khan of Lahore to capture and produce the Guru and the falcon. About 500 sikhs led by Bhai Bidhi Chand, Praana, Jetha, Pairha and Pandhe Khan faced the Mugal army of 5000 soldiers. The Mugal forces ran away after the death of Gulam Rasool Khan and other 2 commanders and the Guru came out victorious.
521.    IInd Battle: After the marriage of his daughter and the war at Amritsar, Guru Sahib came to Kartar pur and then moved to Har Gobind Pura. Har Gobind Pura was founded by Guru Arjan Dev Ji in the name of his son Har Gobind. In 1630, Guru Har Gobind Sahib Ji went to this place to make a protective wall around the town. While looking at the bad relations between the Guru and Shah Jahan and taking advantage of this Bhagwan Chand Khatri, a close relative of Dewaan Chandu and tax collector for the Mugals, warned the Guru and the sikhs to go away from there. Daily one after the other day he started coming and abusing sikhs as well as Sikh Gurus. Even beating by sikhs could not stop his abuses. Ultimately he was beaten to death. His son Ratan Chand, sons of Chandu, and Meharban a cousin of Guru Har Gobind Sahib Ji and son of Prithi Chand, instigated Abdulla Khan, Subedar of Jallandar to attack the Guru at Har Gobind Pura. Without consent of Shah Jahan, Abdulla Khan, along with eight commanders and the Khatri enemies of the guru with about 20000 soldiers attacked the forces of the Guru. Ratan Chand , Karam chand and Abdulla khan came face to face with Guru Sahib. Guru Sahib fought with all the three and killed them one after the other.
522.    IIIrd Battle: After Bhai Bidhi Chand had recovered Guru’s horses from Lahore, a third war took place in 1631 at Mehraj, near Nathane ki Dhab, now called Guru Sar. Lalla Beg and Kammar Beg with about 20000 soldiers challenged the Guru’s forces. After severe fight when Lalla Beg was killed, the Mugal forces took to their heels.
523.    IVth Battle: Painde Khan was brought up by the Guru since his childhood and he bravely took part in the wars by the side of the guru. In 1632, at the instigation of his relatives, other Muslim enemies of the Guru and of his own ego of strength and power, he revolted and became enemy of the guru. Even Dhir Mall, son of Baba Gurditta joined the Mugal forces and was traitor to his father and grand father Guru Har Gobind Sahib Ji. Thus Kale Khan commander of Jallundar, Paindhe Khan ,Dhir Mall and the like Khatries challanged the sikhs at Kartar pur. Bhai Bidhi Chand, Baba Gurditta, young Teg Bahadar (the would be 9th guru at that time) took part in the war. In the field, at the hands of Guru Har Gobind Sahib Ji, his mentor, Painde Khan was fatally injured. Lying injured at the feet of the Guru, he asked for his forgiveness, the Guru blessed him and reminded him to read Kalma, the Muslim way of prayer before departing.
524.    Mata shalakhni went to which guru hargobind sahib ji asking for blessing of son Guru replied bibi not in your karma
Gursikhs told bibi not to accept no for answer from guru ji
bibi got in front of guru's horse and guru patsha you have the power change my karmra you must grant me a child and that she wants guru patsha to write it down
as guru was writing the horse moved guru wrote 7 and Bibi had 7 kids
525.    guru hargobind sahib granted his grand son har rai Sahib Ji
as next gurtha gaddie of guru nanak guru sahib had many medicines for illness

*once walking in the park as child a flower broke of the branch by accidentally touched with his robe and his grand father cautioned to be careful in the future
526.    Guru Ji gave medicine to king shah jahan's son dara Shikoh got ill when his jealous brother Aurangzeb tried to kill him by feeding him lion'a hair which didn't dissolve in stomach

527.    guru excommunicated his cown son ram rai for changing the bani words to please the king and ordered him to not to return home and keep going in the other direction

528.    guru ji granted next gurtha gaddie to his younger son Sri guru har Krishan sahib Ji
Sri guru Har Krishan sahib Ji
was the youngest patsha in age only at the age of 5
guru Ji was called by king to come to delhi to test guru Ji
guru Ji stayed at raja jai singh where Gurdwara bangla sahib is today

529.    raja wanted to know if guru Ji can guess who the real queen is after the raja had disguised his queen as his servant and sat her with other servant ladies

guru Ji picked the real rani right way
530.    *provided cure for thousands in the pool of gurdwara bangla sahib
531.    Guru Ji were tested to translate a shabad of gita by pandats
guru Ji instead of doing the translation himself he ask the pandats to select someone who they want to see do the translation.

so the pandats selected shaju cheer someone they called low cast, couldn't hear or speak
guru Ji held a stick on his head and he did all the translation surprised all the pandats.
532.    9th patshah
guru tegh bhadur sahib Ji
father guru hargobind sahib Ji
Mother Mata Gujri ji
son guru Gobind singh Ji
his childhood name was tegh mahal
known as hind de chadur
Guru teg bhadur sahib ji
was declared as guru at baba bakalae by bhai makhan haw lawana
guru patsha saved his ship from sinking and he pledged 500 gold coins to guru nanak
533.    when bhai makhan haw lawana came on land he realized there 21 who claimed to be guru, he was *certain that true one would know his pledge to test all of them he placed 2 coins infront of all of them non of them rejected the coins, he realized they were all fake. then he came before guru teg bahdur sabig reject and told him his pledge and he realized and declared tegh bhadur sahib Ji and said guru lado rae, guru lado rae,

534.    Kashmiri pandats came to guru tegh bhadur sahib help to save them injust of the king
patsha replied it requires shaheed of a great person and guru gobind Singh ji standing beside said who is greater then you patsha then patasha said go tell the king to if he can convert guru teg bhadur we will all convert.
535.    then guru himself went with 5 singhs to Delhi and 3 Gursikhs did shaheedi before Guru ji
Gurdwara sis ganj where
shaheed took place by beheading guru sahib in intersection of chandi chonk in Delhi

536.    Lakhi Shah Banjara gursikhs who carried the body he cremate 9th guru's body by burning his whole house down
537.    Gurdwara rakabaj ganj in Delhi
538.    bhai ragreta, also known as ragreta guru ka beta carried the head of guru teg bhadur sahib ji to anandpur sahib ji
539.    Gurdwara sis ganj is in the places and where are the head of guru tegh bhadur sahib Ji was cremated at anandpur sahib
540.    10th patsah known by
guru gobind singh Ji
kalgian Wala patashah - guru Ji wore kalgi on his damala
bajan Wala patashah - Guru Ji had bird, baaj
sarbans dhani - guru Ji sacrificed his whole family
his mother father Mata Gujri ji
541.    Guru ji had 4 children sacrificed 2 in war and 2 younger ones burried live in a brick wall by very cruel king, then guru says so what sacrificed 4 long live his Khalsa of thousands of Gursikhs

542.    amrit de dhatae 1699 on vaisakhi day guru blessed the entire human race way escape life cycle of life and death by way khande battae da amrit

543.    created 5 piaraes and gave them uniform and distinct identity and power to fight the unjustic and protect the week, women and children

544.    10th patsah famous names
sahibae kamal the great one
dasmesh pita father of creation
choji pita his greatness
panth dae wali created panth and gave the power 5 piaraes
mardh agamrah the only who has power give the power to singhs to fight unjustic
545.    10th patsah asked 2 singhs bhai mani singh and baba deep singh provided seva to rewrite guru granth sahib ji.
Bhai mani singh wrote the bani and baba deep singh sharpened kalmas (old style pens)
546.    guru ji added 9th patsha bani
1708 guru ji before joti jot gave gutha gaddie to Guru Granth Sahib Ji

547.    fought and won 14 wars
548.    passed the gurtha gaddi to ever lasting shabad guru to adh Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji
549.    Bhai Bidhi Chand
In early years of life before coming in contact of Guru Sahib, Bhai Bidhi Chand was a thief
550.    At one incident it so happened that he stole away a few heads of cattle from a village at night.
He came in the company of Bhai Adli, a devout sikh of Guru Arjan Sahib ji. Bhai Adli took him in for a glimpse of the Guru Arjan Sahib Ji. He implored, “I am a thief, please own me and make me your own.”
The guru smiled and asked him to leave this bad habit and live a life in fear of God and in the service of poor; and thereafter he turned to be a devout true sikh of Guru.
Now he became conscious of his soul and his mind became pure. He devoted his whole life and was always ready to accept any command of the Guru. Guru Arjan Dev Sahib Ji appointed him to preach Sikh way of life and sent him to various villages and far off places for this purpose.
Bhai Bidhi Chand brought 52 youths to the altar of the guru from his own village, who offered themselves to the guru. Bhai Bidhi Chand again played a big role in organising war battalions and rehearsals in between them.
551.    Diwan Todar Mall was a wealthy Hindu merchant of Sirhind, who on the 13 December 1705 performed the cremation of the three martyred bodies of the two younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh, Zorawar Singh aged about 6, Fateh Singh aged about 9 and their grandmother, Mata Gujari.
552.    This incident occurred after the Sahibzade had been executed by the Mughal authorities on the 12 December 1705 for not renouncing their faith and the death from shock of their grandmother at the news of the sudden and despicable execution of the innocent youngsters. This wealthy merchant had to cover the required ground for cremation with gold coins to get the release of the three bodies.
The administrator's stipulation was that the buyer (Todar Mall) will take only as much of the space as he could cover with gold mohars (gold coins), that he would lay out for the purchase. The diwan produced the coins and bought the piece of land he needed for the cremation. It is estimated (see below) that at least 7,800 gold coins were required to buy the required land.
History tells us the Seth ji raised the required number of coins and that he cremated the three bodies and putting the ashes in an urn which he buried in the land he had bought. The site is now marked by Gurdwara Jyoti Saroop at Fatehgarh Sahib, near Sirhind.
553.    Malerkotla did the ha dah narah
when Sahibzada Fateh Singh and Sahibzada Zorawar Singh, 9 and 7 year old sons of 10th Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, were ordered to be bricked alive by the governor of Sirhind, Wazir Khan, his close relative, Sher Mohammed Khan, Nawab of Malerkotla, who was present in the court, lodged vehement protest against this inhuman act and said it is against the glorious tenets of Quran and Islam
554.    Bhai Dalla Singh
once as Dalla was repeating his boast, two artisans of Lahore came and presented the Guru with two costly muzzle-loading guns. The Guru asked Bhai Dalla to provide a couple of his men as targets for him to test the range and striking power of the weapons. The strange demand stunned Dalla and put his men out of their wits, and none of them came forward. The Guru there upon invited two Ranghreta Sikhs, father and son, who happened to be busy tying their turbans near by. They both came running, turbans in hand, each trying to be in front of the other in order to be the first to face the bullet. Bhai Dalla, astonished at the Sikh's spirit of sacrifice, was ashamed and learnt to be humble. He understood that the brotherhood of Khalsa was much much braver than his people
555.    Bhai Katu Shah
556.    A Gursikh brought a bowl of Honey for GURU Hargobind  SAHIB. Near by saint Bhai Katu Shah asked for some Honey but Gursikh refused and said that it was for GURU SAHIB. When he came to offer it to GURU SAHIB, Guru asked to open the bowl and He saw it was full of ants, he asked guru ji what is going on ants. GURU SAHIB said gursikha you didn’t give it us when I asked for it. Gursikh said baba ji forgive me  that was bhai Katu ji,Baba ji said when my Guru asks for something It is Him that is asking and you refueed, Gursikh had asked for forgiveness ordered him to first to feed bhai Katu Ji and then I and sangat here will will accept it.
557.    Bhai Behlo Ji
Bhai Behlo Ji was a landlord in the village Fafde, in the Malwa region of Punjab. When he became a Sikh, he was very keen to offer his services. Constructional work was going on and bricks were being prepared in a kiln where he was offering his services. Someone told him that human faeces strengthened the bricks. Bhai Behlo Ji took a container and started bringing as much human waste as he could. When the Guru heard about it He was proud of him for showing such humility and passion for service and hugged him to His chest. Guru ji gave him title of Bhai behlo sab ton pehlon meaning bhai behlo you are number one on the list of the guru

558.    Nawab Kapur Singh Virk (1697-1753) is considered one of the most revered, pivotal and legendary figures in Sikh history post 1716. Under his leadership decisions and courage, the then tiny Sikh community went through some of the darkest periods of its history.

The founding father of the Sikh Confederacy and Sikh Empire, he was also the founder of the Dal Khalsa. Alongside Banda Bahadur who dominated the seen before him, he laid the foundations of the Sikh Empire and the eventual over-through of the vicious Mughal Empire. Today, he is regarded by Sikhs to be of equal importance to Banda Singh Bahadur.
559.    Akali Phula Singh
He was born leader, outspoken such that he would even spoke to Ranjit Singh of his problems. When Ranjit Singhmarried to a Muslim woman, named Moran of Lahore, Akali Phula Singh, as he was the Jathedar of Akal Takthdeclared that MaharajaRanjit Singh is not a Sikh anymore and is a Tankhaiyawhich means out of Sikhism. He ordered the defendant to be at Golden Temple before the community. Ranjit Singhcame and admitted that he had made a mistake. Akali Phula Singh ordered him 50 lashes for Maharaja Ranjit Singh right there. Ranjit Singh took off his shirt and bowed down to receive his punishment, at such Akali Phula Singh asked Community (Sadh Sangat) to forgive the Maharaja who has bowed down in front of the Sadh Sangat for this mistake. And thus Maharaja was pardoned, but not before he promised that he will not marry again.
Bhai gurdas Ji
was Gursikhs who wrote the entire Guru Granth Sahib Ji during 5th patshah
wrote kabit savaie
wrote waran
560.    Sukha jindah did seva of the Khalsa panth to remove
General Arun Vaidya from life In 1984, General Vaidya designed and supervised[2] Operation Blue Star - a military operation ordered by Indira Gandhi, then Prime Minister of India
561.    *who was Gursukh did water seva and what happened, who called him to question him on seva and his answer
562.    *Sri HARMINDER sahib ji was invaded total 5 times
1) 1740 Massa Ranghar removed by sukha singh and mehtab singh
2) 1746 Lakhpat rai In order to break the Sikh power base, he attacked and destroyed Siree Harmander Sahib completely
3) 1757 ahmed shah abdali invaded he filled The sacred Sarovar was polluted with debris and animal carcasses. freed by baba deep singh Ji
4) 1762 3rd Invasion By Ahmed Shah Abdali During the cannon fire, a brick from Siree Harmander Sahib struck Abdali on the nose. This injury later became cancerous and led to his death in 1773.
5) 1764 4th Invasion By Ahmed Shah Abdali to destroy Sikhs
6) 1984 indra Gandhi invaded Sri harmandir sahib on guru arjandev Ji shaheedi purb
563.    sikh leaders fought and did shaheedi during invasion
sant Jarnail singh
Bhai subekh singh
Bhai Amrik Singh

564.    who were Gursikhs did shaheedi for punishing Gandhi for invading harimandir sahib
Satwant Singh and Beant Singh were bodyguards punished the Prime minister

565.    pir bheekhan shah was a Muslim saint
on the day guru ji body was born pir Ji after namaaz bowed to the east towards Patna sahib birth place of 10th patshah and surprised the wholesaling world. he had realized god was born in guru gobind singh ji
On his arrival at Patna Sahib, Pir Bhikan Shah offered two bowls of milk, signifying both the Great Religions of Hinduism and Islam, before the Divine Child. The Divine Child placed his holy hands on both the bowls. The Mystic Pir bowed in utter humility and reverence to the New Prophet of all humanity.
566.    pir budhu shah was a Muslim saint
devoted to 10th patshah
had 700 strong solders / followers
had 2 of sons and brother shaheed in wars fought on guru's side
guru Ji asked him pir Ji ask for anything pir Ji said just you blessings are worth more then anything in world
guru Ji ask again then pir Ji asked for guru Ji's own comb full of hair
pir was killed by ruler usman khan for fighting on guru side and baba banda singh bahadur killed usman khan in war
567.    ghani khan and nabi khan 2 brothers devoted to 10th patshah carried guru sahib ji in palki
568.    Bhai Manjh, an ardent disciple of the Guru, used to bring dry wood everyday for the langar to be cooked. One day while carrying wood he tumbled into a well following a storm. Guru Arjan Dev found that despite his predicament Bhai Ji had saved the wood from getting wet. The Guru honored his disciple by saying, Manjh is beloved of the Guru and the Guru of the Manjh.
The life of Bhai Manjh, a disciple of Guru Arjan, one among the 10 Sikh Gurus, is one of the best examples of the surrender one must have towards one's Guru.
Bhai Manjh was a very wealthy landlord, who used to worship the tomb of Sakhi Sarwar, a renowned saint. One day he happened to hear Guru Arjan's discourse and was so inspired by it, that he decided to accept Guru Arjan as his Guru.
569.    Guru Arjan said, If you wish to get initiated as a gursikh, you will have to leave the other belief and worship and the statue. Bhai Manjh ran back to his house, and started demolishing his worship room. All his well-wishers warned him, "Bhai Manjh, this act of yours will bring great misfortunes to your family."

Manjh said, "Whatever be the consequences of my act, I am ready to bear them all." He returned to the Guru and was initiated into the holy name. Manjh's heart was filled with gratitude towards his Guru. But soon one misfortune followed another: His horses died, his house was ransacked by thieves, and soon he became a pauper who owed a lot of money to others. All the villagers started making fun of him and criticizing his devotion towards his Guru. But never did his faith swerve.
Soon, Manjh had to leave the village with his wife and children and find shelter in another village. There he made his livelihood by cutting and selling grass.

Several months passed. One day Guru Arjan sent a letter to Bhai Manjh through one of his disciples. But the Guru had instructed the carrier that the letter should only be delivered after Bhai Manjh gave 20 rupees as an offering. Bhai Manjh was delighted to know that his Guru had sent him a letter. But how could he manage to get 20 rupees? Seeing his ordeal, his wife said, "Don't worry. I shall take our daughter and my ornaments to the goldsmith. I am sure we can collect 20 rupees." Soon the wife came back with the money. Giving the money to the disciple, Bhai Manjh received the letter with tear-filled eyes, kisses it and pressed it against his heart.
After some years the Guru sent a second letter and demanded 25 rupees for it. Once again Bhai Manjh had nothing with him. Then he remembered that the head of the village had sought his eldest daughter's hand in marriage. He soon fixed the alliance for which he asked 25 rupees as payment. Offering the money Manjh received the second letter.

Soon after that, Guru Arjan sent a disciple to Manjh with a message that they could come and stay at the Guru's place, doing seva in the Gurudvara. Manjh's happiness knew no bounds. He, his wife and remaining daughter soon started on their way. They were asked to do seva in the kitchen. They would clean the utensils and cut firewood.
570.    One day, Guru Arjan asked one of his close disciples, "Where does Bhai Manjh and his family take food from?"
"From the community kitchen," said the disciple.
The Guru retorted, "Bhai Manjh is not doing real service as he is charging us for his wages, which he takes in the form of food."
Bhai Manjh, who overheard this conversation, felt sad at heart. He went and told his wife, "From tomorrow, we will get our food by some other means. The Guru has given us the priceless treasure of Nam (the Divine Name), and I can never repay that debt. How can we expect anything else for our service to Him."
571.    The next day, after working for the whole day in the kitchen, he went to the forest, cut firewood and sold it at the market, using the money to buy food for his family. This continued for many days.
572.    One day there was a shortage of firewood in the Gurudvara kitchen, and Bhai Manjh had to go to the forest in the evening to fetch some. He had almost finished collecting firewood, when a severe windstorm began. Manjh tried to take shelter under the trees with the bundle of firewood on his head. But the wind started blowing so strongly that he was blown into a deep well.
Suddenly, Guru Arjan called some of his disciples to quickly collect a wooden board and a long rope and accompany him to the forest. The disciples were surprised. On reaching the well, the Guru said, "Manjh is at the bottom of the well. Shout and tell him that we will lower a board tied to a rope. Tell him to cling on to it so that we can pull him out." The Guru then muttered some words into the disciple's ear and asked for that to also be told.
573.    The disciple said, "O Brother, see your pathetic condition. Why do you follow such a Guru who's so cruel? Why don't you leave him and forget him?"
Manjh shouted back, "How dare you say that my Guru is cruel. He has only compassion for me. Never utter such shameless words."
574.    Bhai Manjh did not get on the board first. He put the bundle of firewood on the board and said, "Take the wood first. It is for the Guru's kitchen. If it gets wetter, it will not burn."

575.    The wood was drawn up and the Bhai Manjh was himself pulled out. When he came out he saw Guru Arjan standing before him. He fell at the Guru's feet.
Lifting him up and patting his shoulders, Guru Arjan said, "I am proud of you. You have passed all the tests with unswerving faith, courage and devotion, and have come out successful in all of them. I would be glad to gift you even the three worlds."
With tears streaming down his cheeks, Bhai Manjh said, "O Lord, the only boon I wish for, is You alone! Nothing else is of interest to me."

576.    Hari Singh Nalwa was the Commander-in-chief at the most turbulent North West Frontier of Ranjit Singh's kingdom. In his lifetime, Hari Singh became a terror to the ferocious tribes inhabiting these regions. Even in his death, Hari Singh Nalwa's formidable reputation ensured victory for the Sikhs against an Afghan force five times as numerous.

Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa advised the Pathans that one way they could escape the wrath of an infuriated Sikh was to dress as a woman. In the Punjab, the shalwar kameez is feminine apparel.

577.    History talks about a Afghani mothers putting fears of strength of Bhia Hari singh the child to sleep by saying - Go to sleep my dear, or else Nalwa will come over.

578.    Bibi Mai Bhago (also known as Mata Bhag Kaur) was a Sikh woman who led Sikh soldiers against the Mughals in 1705. She killed several enemy soldiers on the battlefield, and is considered to be a saint by Sikhs
579.    Mother of the Khalsa:
Sahib Devi became mata sahib kaur after amrit. as time passed she longed to become a mother. she ardently expressed her desire for children. The Guru very kindly told her though he could give her no earthly children that if she accepted initiation into the order of Khalsa she will become the mother of an entire Khalsa of countless children. took rebirth as Mata Sahib Kaur, and became forever immortalized as the mother of the Khalsa Nation.
580.    Bhai Bachitar singh when the mugals invaded, on the Order and blessings of 10th patsha, bachitar singh to fight a mad drunk elephant, guru Ji gave him a weapon called naghni